Ballona Institute
From the Library Archives
Resurrection of a Bird Report From 108 Years Ago:
A Guide for Genuine Restoration of Birds in Los Angeles County
With an Afterword by Robert "Roy" van de Hoek
American Bald Eagle
Ballona Institute, 322 Culver Boulevard, Suite 317, Playa del Rey, California 90293

A 2016 Revised Publication


FOREWORD
"Roy"
Robert Jan van de Hoek
Ballona, as a placename is mentioned approximately 10 times by Joseph Grinnell in his masterful report on the birds of coastal Los Angeles County at only 21 years of age in 1898. These birds include the Least Tern and Belding's Sparrow, but also many species of waterfowl. One of the most interesting quotes by Joseph Grinnell involves his statement regarding large flocks feeding at night on the Centinela grain fields, and then these geese moving out to sea for the day to rest and avoid hunters which was a smart movement of the geese as a dynamic behavioral ecology. We can recover this special goose back to Ballona each winter by simply by spreading grain seed just west of Centinela Avenue, south of Culver Boulevard and north of Ballona Creek at the baseball fields of the Ballona Wetland Ecological Reserve and the baseball fields adjacent to Milton Street at the middle "junior high" school. And we may wish to employ aircraft called ultralight to guide the young families of Snow Goose as they follow the ultralight, not unlike dramatized in a popular movie film showed being done for Canada Goose in FLY AWAY HOME. This movie is based on a true study and has been used for other birds such as rare swans and cranes by federal agency approval. The Ballona Institute hopes to do this project and is in the planning stages to carry out this finest effort of recovery (not restoration) of a very big bird that not so long ago, visited Ballona Valley every year.

In addition, Joseph Grinnell discusses Santa Monica several times regarding nesting Bald Eagle and Osprey on the LA coast. We can bring these two large raptors back to Ballona to nest and spend the entire year at Ballona Valley.

Willow woodland habitat is mentioned by Joseph Grinnell many times too with implications for future woodlands in the Ballona Valley. The 1898 report by Ballona gives us so many ideas and concepts to contemplate for a very interesting environmental history and historical ecology of Los Angeles County for the last 125 years from the 1890s to 2016 and beyond into the future which appears to be repeating the past. This time we can change history and take a new path of recovering birds that lived in coastal Los Angeles when Joseph Grinnell was a young man. And there are in turn, implications for consideration of the urban ecology of birds and their habitat 120 years into the future, which is now, in 2016, such that I think of current comments of "back in the day" and also "back to the future" which are phrases often used in our new millenium of 2000 A.D. In these few words of this first Foreword, I am glad to share with you a little bit about Joseph Grinnell and his Los Angeles birds of more than a century ago. And lastly, I am finally I wish to correct a simple spelling / scribing error in the narrative about the Scrub Jay that I made 10 years ago in 2006, when I first published this Ballona Institute publication about Joseph Grinnell. I certainly hope you enjoy this new electronic printing of the newly revised Ballona Institute report by Joseph Grinnell on the birds of Los Angeles County, California.


PASADENA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
Publication Number 2

BIRDS


OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE OF

LOS ANGELES COUNTY

A LIST WITH BRIEF NOTES
BY
Joseph Grinnell, A.B.,
Assistant Instructor in Biology, Throop Polytechnic Institute
Press of G.A. Swerdfiger
PASADENA, CALIFORNIA
March, 1898.

INTRODUCTION

The present list is intended to include all birds which have been so far proven to occur within the limits of the region under consideration. Besides their common and scientific names, brief notes are added on their comparative abundance and distribution; definite dates of arrival and departure, in the cases of migratory birds; the extent of the breeding season, giving exact dates and citing extreme instances.

No species or subspecies has been entered except upon the best of evidence. Thus many, especially water birds, which I am certain do occur, have been excluded because specimens have not been actually secured and properly identified. All notes have undergone careful consideration and if the least doubt as to the identity of the species in question, although I could not prove it to have been wrong.

All species and subspecies, concerning the relationship of which there was any uncertainty, have been carefully looked up or submitted to the best authorities for verification. In case of slight races, comparative series have been examined, and their status as accurately as possible determined.

The present list, with the accompanying notes, is the result mainly of observations made by members of the Southern Division of the Cooper Ornithological Club, and cover little more than the past six or eight years, a very short time as compared with the years of careful observation carried on in some of the Eastern states. Yet the results of our work are so favorable that it is hoped we are not judged conceited or hasty in publishing at least this annotated list.

The region dealt with may seem to be rather ill-defined, but I think that, as restricted, it comprises a neat little geographic area, quite distinct from the surrounding country. It is very seldom that faunal areas coincide with political divisions, and frequently a state or county may lie in parts of two or more entirely different regions, as in the case of Los Angeles County, which is about half and half in the desert and in the Pacific district.

As indicated by the title of this paper, the region here dealt with is the portion of Los Angeles County lying southwest of the divide between the desert and the Pacific slopes. The lower part of Orange County lying west of the Santa Ana mountains is also included, as it is topographically identical with the contiguous portion of Los Angeles County.

The region under consideration presents considerable variation as regards topographic characters, and to this fact may be attributed the large number of birds found in so limited an area. It is approximately sixty miles square in extreme dimensions. Beginning at the seacoast, there is a gradual rise to the base of the main mountain ranges when there is an abrupt elevation to the divide, which varies from 4000 to 9000 feet in altitude. Along the coast there are several bayous with extensive salt marshes. A little further inland, in the artesian well districts and along the streams, there are numerous fresh water ponds and swamps. The plains which comprise the major part of this region, extend almost unbrokenly, gently sloping up to the mountains. However, on the eastern and western margins are ranges of hills or low mountains, furrowed by ravines and canyons. The dry, elevated slopes lying along the base of the Sierra Madre range, at an elevation of 600 to 1200 feet, I have termed the mesa region in distinction from the lower plains lying toward the coast. The high mesas are crossed by broad sandy washes and arroyos, and thus more nearly resemble the desert on the opposite of the mountains. The brush-covered foot-hills rise in successively higher spurs and ridges, culminating in the lofty mountain ranges which form the desert divide. The higher mountains are clothed with heavy coniferous forests, while the canyons are lined with alders and sycamores. Extensive oak forests cover portions of the mesas and lowlands, especially along the western border of the county.

The water birds known to occur around the neighboring islands of Santa Catalina and Santa Barbara, and in the intermediate Santa Barbara Channel, are of course considered belonging to the Los Angeles County fauna, but the land birds of the mainland only are included. The water birds of this county have been given but very little attention. Mr. A.M. Shields, to whom I am greatly indebted for notes on the major part of the game birds, has in fact done almost the only work in that line. The sea birds can be but poorly represented, when we consider the number which should and undoubtedly do occur along our coast and in the adjacent ocean channel. The land birds, however, I believe to be very well covered, at least those of regular occurrence, and besides these it will be noted that there are several rather unexpected stragglers.

It is hoped that this initiatory effort at cataloguing our native birds will be a basis for furthern and more extended observations in this comparatively little known region.

I wish to extend my thanks especially to Messrs. Frank S. Daggett, Horace A. Gaylord and G.F. Morcom for aid and suggestions and for critically reading the manuscript. I am also indebted to the following observers for more or less extended local lists or notes: Ralph Arnold, Walter E. Bryant, Lee Chambers, A.J. Cook, Evan Davis, Chas E. Groesbeck, Frank J Illingworth, Frank B. Jewett, Will B. Judson, Harry J. Leland, A.I. McCormick, Virgil W. Owen, Earl D. Parker, Howard Robertson, Edward Simmons, Frank Stephens, Harry S. Swarth and M.L. Wicks, Jr."

For identification of specimens I owe my sincerest thanks to Prof. Robert Ridgway and Mr. William Palmer of the National Museum, and to Messrs. A.W. Anthony and William Brewster.

Finally, to the Pasadena Academy of Sciences, I express my gratitude for enabling me to publish this paper.
Pasadena, California,
February 21, 1898.
JOSEPH GRINNELL.

Birds of the Pacific Slope of Los Angeles County.

1. Western Grebe. Tolerably common winter visitant along the coast, and occasional in the interior on the larger ponds. A disabled individual of this species was found by Arthur Hewitt on one of the streets of Pasadena, February 21, '95.

2. Eared Grebe. Occasional in summer on the larger fresh water ponds, and in winter along the coast. I found it numerous at Catalina Island in the last week of December, '97. It breeds at Elizabeth Lake in the northern part of the county, and abundantly at Bear Valley Lake in the San Bernardino Mountains. W.H. Wakely has an immature male of this species in perfect albino plumage, shot near San Pedro, September 30, '86.

3. Pied-billed Grebe. Common resident on ponds and lagoons throughout the lowlands. It appears in the fall in localities where it is not seen at other times; V.W. Owens has taken specimens at that season on a reservoir at Garvanza. Breeds in May.

4. Common Loon. Tolerably common along the coast as well as inland on fresh water ponds in mid-winter. For several years, before the reservoirs in North Pasadena were cemented, Loons were of regular occurrence, subsisting on the fish which were then abundant in the reservoirs. One bird in particular became very tame and was regularly fed by the "zanquero" until it disappeared in the spring.

5. Pacific Loon. Tolerably common midwinter visitant along the coast. A.M. Shields shot an adult male specimen at Nigger Slough in January, '93. I found it common at Catalina Island in the latter part of December, '97, and took two specimens.

6. Red-throated Loon. Tolerably common winter visitant along the coast. F.S. Daggett took a specimen at San Pedro, January 4, '96, and several others were seen. I have noted it in the spring as late as the first week of April.

7. Tufted Puffin. I observed a few in May, '97, at Santa Barbara Island, where they were probably nesting.

8. Rhinoceros Auklet. Apparently a common winter visitant. I found it comparatively numerous at Catalina Island in the last week of December, '97, and secured ten specimens in one day's collecting. F. Stephen took a specimen in the same locality in the latter part of March, '93. Evan Davis has a specimen taken near Newport Bay in winter.

9. Cassin's Auklet. Abundant resident around the Islands. I found it numerous at Catalina Island in December, '97, and breeding in large numbers on Santa Barbara Island in May, '97. On May 16, badly incubated eggs and young of all sizes were secured, so that the breeding season probably begins in March.

10. Xantus Murrelet. Seen frequently out in the Channel Islands at all seasons. I took a specimen near Santa Barbara Island, May 13, '97.

11. Pigeon Guillemot. Common resident about the Islands. I saw several at Catalina Island in December '97, and found it breeding numerously at Santa Barbara Island in May, '97. Fresh sets of two eggs each were taken on May 15.

12. Parasitic Jaeger. A female of this species was taken at Santa Monica, September 29, '95, by H.S. Swarth. Jaegers are not infrequently seen along the coast in winter, and probably include other species besides this.

13. Glaucous-winged Gull. W.B. Judson has an immature specimen taken near Redondo 14. Western Gull. Abundant throughout the year along the coast. Especially numerous in San Pedro Harbor, where they are protected by law as being useful scavengers. Breeds in large numbers on Santa Barbara Island. In May '97, full sets of three fresh eggs were found by the 18th. Nests also on an outlying rock near the Isthmus at Catalina.

15. Herring Gull. This species is frequent in winter along the coast. I found it in small numbers in December, '97, at Catalina Island, and a specimen was obtained.

16. California Gull. Common winter visitant along the coast. This species also frequents the fresh water marshes back from the coast, feeding on dead ducks at the sporting grounds, and I have even seen it along the river bottom near Los Angeles.

17. Ring-billed Gull. Tolerably common along the coast in midwinter. J.F. Illingworth has a specimen taken at Long Beach, December 20, '92, and I have one take at the same place, December 4, '96.

18. Heermann's Gull. Generally a common winter visitant along the coast. I have seen it in spring as late as May 11 ('97), and in the fall by September 1 ('97). When the fishermen draw their seines along the beaches, clouds of gulls are usually attracted and of these, this species generally forms about one-fourth, while the Western Gull forms about one-half. The greater part of our winter visitants among the Laridae are in immature plumage, and consequently in most cases difficult to distinguish at a distance. I suspect that a systematic slaughter of the swarms of gulls attracted by the fishermen would result in the addition of several more species to our list. But this would be a practice tht is certainly reprehensible in the extreme, although I understand it has been resorted to, to a successful degree, by a "lover of birds" near San Francisco.

19. Bonaparte's Gull. Occasional winter visitant along the coast. I have an adult male taken near Santa Monica, December 8, '97, by E.C. Thurber. I saw a pair in San Pedro Harbor on May 11, '97, and single individual at the same place, January 30, '97.

20. Royal Tern. More or less common throughout the year along the coast. Very numerous in winter around Catalina Island. I do not know of its breeding north of Lower California.

21. Forster's Tern. Common spring and fall migrant; seen generally about the sloughs and bays. I secured specimens at San Pedro, September 1, '97. H.A. Gaylord saw several individuals at Alamitos Beach, December 4, '96.

22. Least Tern. Abundant in summer, coastwise. Arrives about the middle of April and leaves for the most part late in August, although V.W. Owen noted a few near Long Beach on September 24 ('97). This tern nests abundantly in suitable places along the sea coast. A strip of sandy beach separating the surf from a tide marsh seems to be generaly selected. Such nesting sites are on Terminal Island and Ballona Beach, where good-sized colonies are usually found breeding. Sets are most often of two, occasionally of three. Breeds mainly in June. Evan Davis has found fresh eggs as early as May 20, and as late as August 12, at Newport Beach.

23. Black-footed Albatross. Tolerably common out to sea, probably occurring throughout the year. Follows in the wake of steamships and other large vessels, and such times known to the sailors as "Goonies."

24. Short-tailed Albatross. Dr. J.G. Cooper informs me that he has taken this species near Catalina Island. I once found a partly decomposed specimen in the surf at Long Beach. Evan Davis has a fine specimen which was killed with an oar near Newport Beach.

25. Northern Fulmar. Irregular visitant out in the Channel. Very numerous in the vicinity of Catalina Island in the fall of '97. F.S. Daggett found a specimen dead on the sand at Long Beach, October 11, '95.

26. Pink-footed Shearwater. Occasional out to sea. Seen and possibly identified near Catalina Island on May 12, '97, by H.A. Gaylord.

27. Black-vented Shearwater. More or less common at all times out in the Channel. During the spring and early summer of '97 they were abundant off San Pedro. They are said to have formerly bred on Santa Barbara Island.

28. Sooty Shearwater. Occasionally common out in the Channel. During the spring of '97 they were not uncommon off San Pedro, associated with the Black-vented Shearwaters. Considerable numbers are sometimes found washed up on the beaches in the fall of the year. W.B. Judson noted many of these birds, dead or disabled, on the beach at Santa Monica toward the end of August, '97.

29. Leach's Storm-Petrel. I found the remains of one at Long Beach, September 7, '95. Dr. J.G. Cooper informs me that he has observed a white-rumped petrel out in the Channel near Catalina which he considered of this species.

30. Black Storm-Petrel. During the spring of '97, this species was observed on several occasions out in the open Channel. It is probably a more or less common resident.

31. Double-crested Cormorant. Common throughout the year, though less so in summer. Those which remain about San Pedro Harbor in summer are mostly immature. This is the only cormorant found further inland than the coast, it being frequent in winter on the larger ponds and marshes. Breeds abundantly on Santa Barbara Island in the latter part of May. It also breeds according to A.M. Shields, on Gull Rock near the Isthmus at Catalina Island. Three or four eggs constitute a set.

32. Brandt's Cormorant. The most abundant cormorant. Very numerous along the coast and breeding in large numbers on Santa Barbara Island. On this island, May 15, '97, I found small young as well as eggs in all stages of incubation. Sets were of two to four. Probably the small size of some of the sets was due to the thieving propensities of the gulls, which are always ready to carry off unprotected eggs. This cormorant is the usual one observed about San Pedro, and sometimes hundreds are seen roosting on the breakwater. Large beds of "shags," as the fishermen call either species of cormorant, are frequently met with jsut outside the harbor.

33. Pelagic Cormorant. Tolerably common resident among the islands. Breeds numerously on Santa Barbara Island in May. Probably occurs in winter along the mainland coast, but I have not learned that it has as yet been positively identified there.

34. American White Pelican. Occasionally during the fall and winter good-sized flocks appear on the fresh water marshes and lagoons near the coast. A.M. Shields says that during the migrations he has seen V-shaped flocks further inland flying at a considerable height.

35. Brown Pelican. Abundant in winter all along our coast, and a few remain through the summer about San Pedro Harbor. It does not breed within our limits that I know of, though I am told that it does north of us on Ana Capa Island and south, on Los Coronados.

36. Magnificent Frigatebird. Of not infrequent occurrence along our coast in winter. W.B. Judson reports seeing it at Santa Monica, H.A. Gaylord, at Long Beach. There is a specimen in a Los Angeles taxidermist's [office], which was taken near Santa Monica. A specimen was shot about August, '92, in North Pasadena (R.H. Lawrence in "Auk" Volume X). H.S. Swarth reports seeing three of these birds circling overhead near Los Angeles, in December, '97.

37. Common Merganser. Probably a not uncommon winter visitant. F. Stephens took a male at Alamitos Bay, December 15, '79.

38. Red-breasted Merganser. Common winter visitant, occuring mostly along the coast. I saw it at Catalina Island in December, '97. H.S. Swarth took a specimen near Los Angeles, Dec. 27, '94.

39. Hooded Merganser. A.M. Shields states that this Saw-bill is a common fall and winter visitant, arriving in November and leaving by February. Mostly found along the coast in the vicinity of the salt marshes. F. Stephens took an adult male at Alamitos Bay, December 23, '79.

40. Mallard. Abundant resident in the neighborhood of fresh water marshes, and along irrigating ditches and streams A.M. Shields states that it breeds from the first April to the last of June.

41. Gadwall. Tolerably common resident in the vicinity of fresh water lagoons. A.M. Shields took a set of eleven eggs, considerably incubated, on April 16.

42. American Wigeon. Abundant winter visitant. A.M. Shields states that after the first rains, as soon as the new growth of grass appears, this duck arrives in thousands. They generally spend the day, in common with many other species of ducks, several miles out at sea, resting on the water in beds of acres in extent. Here they are safe from the gunner during the day, and only after nightfall they go inland, dispersing over alfalfa and grain fields to feed. This duck remains late in the spring, A.M. Shields states as late as May 15, and arrives early in the fall. Known generally among hunters as "widgeon."

43. Green-winged Teal. Abundant in winter throughout the lowlands. This the commonest duck in the game markets.

44. Blue-winged Teal. Rare visitant. F.S. Daggett took an adult male near El Monte, March 12, '97. It was on a small pond and no others were seen. W.B. Judson shot a female near Los Angeles, October 31, '96.

45. Cinnamon Teal. An abundant fresh water duck during spring, summer, and fall, going south in midwinter. Breeds in considerable numbers throughout the lower country in the vicinity of ponds and lagoons. A set of twelve fresh eggs was taken by A.M. Shields, near Compton, May 7, '95. Evan Davis took sets of seven and nine fresh eggs each at Newport Bay, April 20, '97. Breeds mostly in May.

46. Northern Shoveler. Abundant winter visitant about any body of water. I have seen it on ponds near Pasadena as late in the spring as May 3, ('95). Generally called "spoonbill" by local hunters.

47. Northern Pintail. Abundant in winter, and a few remain through the summer about lagoons and marshes. A.M. Shields states that he has taken sets of eggs in May. Commonly called "sprig" by hunters.

48. Wood Duck. Occasional midwinter visitant. A.M. Shields states that it breeds in this State further northward, along the San Joaquin River.

49. Redhead. Tolerably common in summer. Breeds sparingly in fresh water marshes.

50. Canvasback. Tolerably common winter visitant. Our most highly prized game bird. A.M. Shields writes me that he believes it to occasionally breed within the county.

51. Lesser Scaup. A.M. Shields says that this duck is found commonly in fall, winter and spring on the lagoons and bays along the coast, and sometimes on the deeper bodies of fresh water a few miles inland.

52. Ring-necked Duck. A.M. Shields states that this duck to occur in company with the last, but only about one-third as numerous. H.S. Swarth has taken it near Los Angeles.

53. Common Goldeneye. Only one record, that by A.M. Shields of a male shot at Ballona, December 14, 1894. .

54. Bufflehead. Abundant winter visitant, especially on the lagoons along the coast.

55. Black Scoter. A.M. Shields states that he has found this duck in limited numbers during the winter months along the coast and on the tide marshes. Dr. J.G. Cooper took it at Catalina Island, many years ago.

56. White-winged Scoter. A.M. Shields writes that he has found this to be the commonest Scoter along the coast and on the tide marshes. F. Stephens found it common at Catalina Island in the latter part of March, '93.

57. Surf Scoter. Quite numerous at times during the mid-winter months along the coast. I have noted considerable numbers about San Pedro Harbor in December and January. In December, '97, it was very numerous at Catalina Island.

58. Ruddy Duck. Tolerably common resident. A.M. Shields states that it breeds from late in May until the last of June. Evan Davis took a set of twelve eggs, considerably incubated, near Orange on May 28th.

59. Snow Goose. A.M. Shields considers this a common winter visitant in the lowlands. Immense numbers feed during the winter and spring months on the Centinela grain fields. This goose, in common with the other species, does considerable damage to grain and alfalfa crops. They feed almost entirely at night; during the day they stay out at sea resting on the water in large beds a few miles off shore along with swarms of ducks.

60. Greater Snow Goose. Evan Davis writes me that he secured specimens of this race along with the Lesser Snow Goose in winter near Santa Ana.

61. Greater White-fronted Goose. Quite numerous during the winter and spring on the freshwater marsh lands. A.M. Shields that this is the goose usually displayed in the Los Angeles game markets, being most easily secured by the pot-hunters.

62. Canada Goose. Tolerably common in midwinter in the vicinity of fresh water marsh lands. I saw good-sized flocks at Bixby, Dec. 26, '95, when several specimens were secured. A.M. Shields states that this goose was formerly much more abundant than it now is.

63. Canada Goose. A.M. Shields regards this as nearly as numerous as the Lesser Snow Goose, and occurring in company with that species.

64. Brant. A.M. Shields is the sole authority for adding this species to our list. He states that the Black Brant is an occasional winter visitant along the coast. It appears in small flocks after severe storms further north.

65. Fulvous Whistling Duck. A.M. Shields furnishes all the information we have in regard to this interesting species. He has found it to be a regular visitant in the spring months from the last of January until the latter part of April or even later. In the spring of '96 a flock of about seventy-five remained in the vicinity of "Dominguez Creek" Slough until the middle of May. They then abruptly disappeared, probably returning southward where this species is known to breed, in Northern Mexico.

66. Trumpeter Swan. A regular winter and spring visitant in small numbers on fresh water ponds and lakes. A.M. Shields has taken two fine specimens.

67. White-faced Ibis. Of common occurrence in fall, winter, and spring. A few remain through the summer in the Ballona marshes, and A.M. Shields believes that they breed there.

68. Wood Stork. J.F. Illingworth observed a large flock of this species on the barley fields in the vicinity of Claremont during June, '97. On June 20 a specimen was secured and preserved, and a few days later a local hunter shot another.

69. American Bittern. Common throughout the winter on any marsh lands. A.M. Shields has observed these birds in the Alamitos swamps in June, and believes that they breed, though in very small numbers.

70. Least Bittern. Probably as numerous as its larger relative, the American Bittern, but on account of its small size, and habit of skulking to one side in the herbage rather than taking flight at the approach of a person, it is not commonly seen. Breeds in small numbers on swamp lands. A.M. Shields has taken several sets in the early part of May.

71. Great Blue Heron. Common throughout the year, but most numerous in spring and fall. Usually seen standing singly at the margins of ponds or irrigation ditches. Occasionally companies of a dozen to twenty or more are to be seen on the salt marshes along the coast. Breeds sparingly in the county. L. Chambers reports finding a small colony nesting in a grove of sycamores north of Santa Monica. There were thirty-five nests there in '95, but in '97 their numbers had decreased to six. May 13, '95, three considerably incubated sets of four each were taken. A.M. Shields found a single nest of the Great Blue Heron near Cerritos on the San Gabriel River, May 5, '89. The set consisted of five fresh eggs. Evan Davis has located a small breeding colony near Orange. He secured a set of four fresh eggs on June 15.

72. Great Egret. A not infrequent winter and spring visitant on the marshlands. Seldom more than one is seen at a time, though I have noted as many as eight in sight at once in the salt marshes near San Pedro. A.M. Shields states that formerly this beautiful bird visited us in great numbers, and that its present scarcity is probably due to the plume hunters.

73. Snowy Egret. Formerly a common visitant like the [Great] Egret], but now only seldom seen. W.H. Wakeley, the Pasadena taxidermist, has plumes and skins of both species taken in the county. He says that in the early 80's he received many specimens from hunters and sportsmen, but that of late they are very rarely brought in.

74. Green Heron. Common spring and fall migrant, appearing singly along streams and ponds. It is not only found in the lowlands, but I have taken specimens in the mountain canons back of Pasadena. Noted in the vicinity of Pasadena in the fall of '94 from August 21 to September 22.

75. Black-crowned Night Heron. Abundant migrant and common throughout the winter. Found along the margins of any body of water or stream, frequently at a considerable elevation in the canons. Although this bird has not been found nesting within the limits of the County, it probably does not go far, as I have shot specimens toward the latter part of April which contained well-developed eggs.

76. Sandhill Crane. Principally in evidence during the migration in large V-shaped flocks high in the air, flying northward or southward according to the season. A.M. Shields states that a few stay through the winter and spring months up to May first, among the Centinela hills and grain-fields. F.S. Daggett has noted them in grain-fields in winter near Pasadena.

77. Clapper Rail. "Tolerably common resident in the salt marshes along the coast. Among the lagoons between San Pedro and Long Beach, their loud cackling notes are frequently heard, especially at high tide, when they are driven to the higher ground. They probably nest in moderate abundance, though few eggs have so far been taken. W.B. Judson took a set of six slightly incubated eggs at Ballona, May 16, 1894."

79. Sora. Wherever there are swampy lands overgrown with marsh grass and tules, the Sora is a more or less common resident. During the migrations it is somewhat more numerous and appears in localities where it is not found at any other season. A.M. Shields writes me that he has taken many sets, all in May. The nest is built usually on the ground, and well concealed within a clump of grass or tules. Sets are of 7 to 14 eggs.

80. Black Rail. This very small and secretive bird is but rarely noted. Evan Davis took a specimen near Orange, Dec. 12, '96. G.F. Morcom saw one in the Ballona marsh, May 16, '95, and thinks it must have had a nest nearby.

81. Common Moorhen. Common resident on large tule-bordered ponds. Wherever there are Coots this species is likely to be found, though its secretive habits render it far less conspicuous than the Coot. Nests in tule beds mostly in May. O.W. Howard took a set of nine slightly incubated eggs near Los Angeles, April 15 ('90); W.B. Judson took a set of nine considerably incubated eggs, June 18 ('95), near Redondo. These represent the probable extent of the breeding season.

82. American Coot. Abundant resident on any permanent body of water, especially if there is a border of tules. During the winter it is more generally distributed, and even appears along irrigation ditches and on small reservoirs. These birds are popularly know as "mud-hens," and are killed by hundreds on the duck preserves, as they are considered a nuisance by the hunters. Breeds in the latter part of April, and in May.

83. Red Phalarope. Specimens were taken by Walter Richardson in the fall on a reservoir near Pasadena. A.M. Shields states it to be occasionally common the sloughs along the coast during the spring months.

84. Red-necked Phalarope. Abundant migrant. H.S. Swarth took it at Nigger Slough, June 19 ('97), and G.F. Morcom saw several in July at the same place. F.S. Daggett found them in large flocks on the freshwater ponds at Bixby, August 10 to August 27 ('96). Thus, they occur nearly through the summer, though none are known to breed.

85. American Avocet. Found marshy districts in varying numbers throughout the year. Breeds commonly in the vicinity of the Alamitos swamps and Nigger Slough. A.M. Shields, took a set of four fresh eggs at the latter place, May 27 ('92), and W.B. Judson took a similar set, June 26 ('95), in the same locality. Evan Davis reports taking eggs near Santa Ana from May 3 to July 6. Full sets are almost invariably of four.

86. Black-necked Stilt. Common in spring and fall on the margins of ponds and marshes. Breeds locally in considerable numbers. Evan Davis has taken eggs at Alkali Lakes near Santa Ana from the first of May until August. Sets were of three and four eggs each.

87. Common Snipe. Abundant game bird in fall, winter and spring, on grassy swamps and wet pastures.

88. Long-billed Dowitcher. Common winter visitant. Perhaps most often taken in early spring.

89. Least Sandpiper. A common winter visitant. Generally seen on margins of ponds or sloughs in small scattering companies.

90. Dunlin. Common migrant and scarcely less numerous through the winter. Usually observed in good-sized flocks on the sea beach at the mouth of a slough or "river." W.H. Wakeley has specimens in the bright summer plumage, taken at a pond near Pasadena early in May.

91. Western Sandpiper. Appears along the coast in immense flocks during September and April. G.F. Morcom has noted this species in July.

92. Sanderling. Common throughout the winter in flocks on the sandy sea beaches. It remains common until the middle of May, and H.S. Swarth has taken specimens at Redondo as late as June 4 ('97).

93. Marbled Godwit. Noted occasionally along the coast during migrations.

94. Greater Yellowlegs. Tolerably common winter visitant. Generally flushed from the margins of freshwater ponds and sloughs.. G.F. Morcom saw this bird at Nigger Slough, June 19 ('97), and H.S. Swarth has observed it in July. These were probably stragglers, asa there is no evidence of their breeding.

95. Solitary Sandpiper. Common migrant on the interior lowlands. W.B. Judson reports it as numerous along the Los Angeles River in the fall. He took the earliest specimen, August 27 ('95). H.S. Swarth has taken it in the spring near Los Angeles from April 21 to May 2 ('97).

96. Willet. Common migrant and occasional through the winter on the tide marshes along the coast. I took specimens near San Pedro, September 3, '97. .

97. Wandering Tattler. Two specimens were shot by Frank Stephens in the latter part of March, '93 at Catalina Island. Probably occurs in winter along the rocky shores west of San Pedro.

98. Spotted Sandpiper. Common migrant over most parts of the county. I have taken it during the spring migrations. F.S. Daggett found it common along the San Gabriel Canon several miles back in the mountains, May 8, ('97). In the fall it occurs most commonly along the coast; observed at San Pedro, August 31 ('97). It was tolerably common at Catalina Island in December, '97.

99. Long-billed Curlew. Common winter visitant on the tide marshes along the coast. I have seen solitary pairs near Long Beach in July, so possibly a few breed.

100. Whimbrel. "Hudsonian Curlew" or "Short-billed Curlew". Common spring and fall migrant in marshy places throughout the lowlands. A.M. Shields states this species to be numerous at Alamitos and Ballona during the spring migration from March 15 to May 1.

101. Black-bellied Plover. Common spring and fall migrant along the coast. Usually noted on the beaches and mud-flats at the mouth of the sloughs.

102. Killdeer. Abundant resident on wet meadows and about any freshwater streams or ponds. Sometimes they gather in large flocks in newly mown alfalfa fields where they are very beneficial in destroying army-worms and other insects. A.M. Shields says that the breeding season extends ordinarily from the middle of March to the last of May. Evan Davis took a set of four near Santa Ana on June 15th.

103. Semipalmated Plover. Tolerably common migrant. I have noted it only in the fall along the coast. Specimens were secured Sept. 7 ('95), and Oct 17, ('94). Occurs in small flocks on mud flats and beaches.

104. Snowy Plover. Common resident along the coast. Usually seen in winter in small companies, but in the breeding season they scatter over the sandy beaches, and are found nestling just above the reach of the surf often in the same vicinity with Least Terns. Evan Davis took full sets of three eggs each at Newport Beach on May 1 ('97), and on the same day took two young. O.W. Howard took a set of three slightly incubated eggs, July 7 ('95). These indicate the extent of the breeding season, the average being about the first of June. Full sets are almost always of three.

105. Mountain Plover. Common winter visitant on the interior fields and pasture lands. At times large numbers are offered in the Los Angeles game markets.

106. Black Turnstone. Two immature specimens were taken by F. Stephens in the latter part of March, '93, on Catalina Island. I noted it in the same locality towrad the last of December, '97. J.W. Daniel Jr., writes me that he took a specimen at Redondo Beach, June 14, '96.

107. Mountain Quail. Common resident in the mountainous districts from the highest summits to the foothills. Most numerous in the heavy growth of scrub oak and manzanita which covers the southern slopes of the higher mountains. The "Mountain Quail," as it is locally termed, is not easily flushed and as it generally remains on the steep hill-sides in the almost impenetrable brush, it does not afford much sport to hunters. In time of heavy snow in the mountains, these birds appear in considerable numbers in th lower foothills, and individuals have even been seen in Pasadena, three miles from the base of the mountains. The breeding season begins in April. H. Leland found a nest in the Linda Vista hills west of Pasadena, May 7, '97. It contained ten eggs of the Plumed Partridge and four eggs of the Valley Partridge; all were fresh. The Plumed Partridge was flushed from the nest. I have taken young apparently but a day or two old, on Pine Flats, as late as July 15.

108. California Quail. Abundant resident throughout the county except the higher mountains and marsh lands.. The range of this species and the Plumed Partridge overlaps in the foothill regions, but the two species never flock together. The Valley "Quail" is the game bird of Southern California. It is particularly abundant in the vicinity of vineyards, and is said to do considerable damage to the grape crop. The breeding season begins in April and extends nearly through the summer. H. Robertson took a set of nine fresh eggs near Los Angeles, August 9, '97. Full sets vary from 9 to 23 eggs, usually 15 to 17.

109. Gambel's Quail. H.S. Swarth took an adult male near Los Angeles, September 16, '96. This species occurs regularly not more than fifty miles northward and but a little further to the eastward, so the probabilities are that this bird was a straggler. The plumage showed no marks of its having been in confinement.

110. Band-tailed Pigeon. Irregular resident. In some winters it appears in flocks of hundreds in the oak region on the mountains and along the foothills. Its presence or absence seems to be governed by the crop of acorns, here and elsewhere. In the spring of '95 a flock remained at Oak Knoll, south of Pasadena, until the middle of June. Breeds sparingly on the higher mountains. C.E. Groesbeck found a nest on Mt. Wilson, July 5, '94. It was on a horizontal oak branch extending out over a deep gorge, and contained a single squab about a week old. W.B. Judson found a nest on Mt. Wilson, May 23, '97. It contained but one egg, considerably incubated.

111. Mourning Dove. Abundant resident throughout the lowlands, and less common in summer up to the summits of the mountains. Generally seen in pairs or small flocks in weed patches and stubble fields or at watering places. In the vicinity of Pasadena the Doves nearly all disappear in winter, but are then found large flocks in the lower country. Breeding season quite extensive: C.E. Groesbeck took a set of two fresh eggs, March 14 ('96); and H.S. Swarth found a set of eggs just hatching, September 15 ('97).

112. California Condor. Tolerably common resident in the mountainous parts of the county. Hardly a day passes in the vicinity of Mt. Wilson without one or more being seen. They undoubtedly breed in one of the precipitous canons near by. The "Condors" are also frequently seen in the Santa Monica and Simi Mountains. In the latter locality I once saw seven at one time circling overhead. The Condor is not by any means becoming extinct in this part of the State, and if they continue to be as shy as now, there is not much liklihood of their extermination very soon.

113. Turkey Vulture. Abundant resident. Less common in the middle of winter. Breeds in the foothills from the latter part of March to the last of April. Evan Davis writes that in the vicinity of Orange he does not find eggs until May. He took sets on the 8th and 19th of that month. Two eggs constitute a full set.

114. White-tailed Kite. Tolerably common resident in the lowlands. Nests in the willow region in March and April. A.M. Shields has taken sets in the neighborhood of Alamitos as follows: Set 5 fresh, April 4, '96; set 5 fresh, April 11, '96; nest containing two young one-half grown and two addled eggs, April 11, '96; incomplete set of two fresh eggs, probably a second set laid by the pair of birds robbed, May 3, '96.

115. Northern Harrier. Very common in the lowlands, especially in the vicinity of swamps and wet pastures. Resident throughout the year, but somewhat more numerous in winter. Breeds commonly in May, laying four or five eggs.

116. Sharp-shinned Hawk. Common in fall and winter throughout the county. Food, almost entirely composed of small birds. This hawk is to a certain extent nocturnal in habits. I have shot specimens long after dark as they flew overhead outlined against the clear sky. They sometimes create quite a disturbance after dusk, stealthily flitting through trees where linnets are roosting, and without doubt preying on them. I have seen Sharp-shinned Hawks in the mountains in every month of spring and summer, so a few probably breed.

117. Cooper's Hawk. Tolerably common resident along the foothills. Breeds late in April. Ed. Simmons took sets of four eggs each slightly incubated, on April 28, '95, and April 26, '96. Both of these were in canons north of Pasadena.

118. Red-tailed Hawk. This hawk is generally of common occurrence throughout the county. I saw adults and young in July, '97, on Mt. Waterman (8500 feet). The breeding season is at its height the last week in March. Extreme dates: Set of fresh eggs taken by Evan Davis near Orange, February 26 ('97); set 2, incubation advanced, taken in San Fernando Valley, April 30 ('92), by H.A. Gaylord. Full sets are generally of two or three, but M.L. Wicks, Jr., took a set of four eggs. This hawk, in common with other species, is popularly known as Henhawk or Chickenhawk, and is relentlessly killed whenever chance is offered. I think the great increase in the numbers of ground squirrels in some parts of the county is due in part to the destruction of hawks and owls, which were formerly far more numerous than now.

119. Red-shouldered Hawk. Tolerably common in the lower parts of the county, especially in the oak and willow regions. Extent of breeding season, indicated by the following instances: Set 4, slightly incubated, taken at El Monte, March 15 ('97), by C.E. Groesbeck; set 2, incubation begun, taken at Compton, May 22 ('92), also by C.E. Groesbeck. Sets are of two to five eggs.

120. Swainson's Hawk. As far as I can learn this is only a spring and summer visitant. On windy days, in late March and early April, large numbers are sometimes seen flying northwestward in migtation, and similarly in the latter part of September long, straggling flocks are observed at a moderate height, flying in a southeasterly direction. This species apparently breeds in considerable numbers, but is confined to the valleys and lowlands. The usual time of egg-laying is in the latter part of April and early May. L. Chambers reports taking fresh eggs as late as June 1, near Santa Monica. Sets are of two or three.

121. Ferruginous Hawk. Tolerably common for a hawk, appearing mostly in the fall. A few undoubtedly breed, though I have failed to learn of any authentic nesting data.

122. Golden Eagle. Tolerably common in the mountainous parts of the county. Nests are built in tall fir trees and are usually inaccessible; at least no sets have been taken in this county, to my knowledge. Full-fledged young appear in July.

123. Bald Eagle. Tolerably common in certain localities along the coast, and of casual occurrence inland as far as Pasadena. L. Chambers took a set of two considerably incubated eggs near Santa Monica, March 13, '97. The was about forty feet above the ground, in a large sycamore near the beach. Evan Davis secured a set of two near Santa Ana, March 5, '95.

124. Prairie Falcon. Tolerably common in fall and winter in the foothill and mesa regions.

125. Peregrine Falcon. Of occasional occurrence along the coast and over the lowlands further inland. A pair is said to have formerly nested in one of the caves in Eagle Rock, near Pasadena.

126. Merlin. Tolerably common during fall and winter in the foothill and mesa regions.

127. American Kestrel. Abundant throughout the county, from the coast to the highest mountains. In the lowlands the Sparrow Hawk is most frequently noticed perched on telegraph poles along the railroads, or hovering over the fields on the lookout for its prey. It feeds principally on insects, grasshoppers in particular, and is thus beneficial to the farmer, and in this vicinity is seldom persecuted as are the larger hawks. Breeds commonly wherever proper nesting sites are to be found. Eggs usually laid in April, though individual pairs often nest earlier, or if the first set is destroyed, much later; set 5, incubation slight, taken by me near Pasadena, March 18 ('93); set 5, incubation medium, taken by E. Parker near Claremont, June 27 ('97). Sets are of three to six eggs, generally four or five.

128. American Osprey. Of occasional occurrence along the coast, mostly in fall and spring. None nest within the county at present, except on the Islands, where they breed abundantly. M.L. Wicks, Jr., tells me that a pair formerly had a nest on a rock in the surf near Santa Monica.

129. Barn Owl. This is probably our best known owl, making its home in barn lofts, church towers and garrets. It is popularly known as Golden Owl and Monkey-faced Owl. Breeds commonly in March and April, in the oak regions, as well as in buildings and holes in banks. C.E. Groesbeck found a nest containing half-grown yound, on February 11 ('97), and on the same date took a set of six slightly incubated eggs; H. Leland took a set of five fresh eggs on June 5 (97). Both were near Pasadena.

130. Long-eared Owl. Common resident in the willow regions of the lowlands. Eggs are most generally laid in April. Extremes: C.E. Groesbeck took a set of four eggs almost ready to hatch, near El Monte, March 15 ('97). R. Arnold took a set of four fresh eggs in San Fernando Valley, May 1 ('92).

131. Short-eared Owl. Apparently a tolerably common winter visitant. Observed only in wet meadows in the lowlands. On November 7 ('96), I flushed a flock of five from an alfalfa field near El Monte, and secured two. February 8, ('93) is the latest authentic record in the spring. This owl has recently been reported as nesting in this country, but I consider the identiy questionable.

132. Spotted Owl. Apparently a resident, though in small numbers, in the higher mountains. Several specimens have been taken in the canons north of Pasadena in winter, and I took an adult male in moulting plumage in the same vicinity, August 10 ('94). F.J. Illingworth secured full-fledged young in a canon near Claremont, July 4 ('94), and has seen adults in the same place on several occasions since.

133. Screech Owl. Common resident in the oak regions from the lowlands to 5000 feet elevation in the mountains. Breeds principally in April. Incomplete sets of 2 fresh eggs, taken March 14 ('96) by C.E. Groesbeck; set 3, incubation advanced, taken by myself June 5 ('95), both near Pasadena. Sets are ordinarily of 3 to 5 eggs, but Evan Davis reports as many as 8 in a set.

134. Great-horned Owl. Tolerably common resident in the mesa and foot-hill regions, but becoming scarcer every year. Breeds in February and March. A.M. Shields took a set of three fresh eggs in San Fernando Valley, February 15, ('95). A.I. McCormick found a nest April 4 ('97), containing two young just hatched and one addled young. Full sets are of two or three, usually the latter number.

135. Burrowing Owl. Abundant resident on the lowlands and mesas. On the fields around Bixby and South Clearwater, this bird is particularly numerous. Nesting begins early in April. Latest set, 4 fresh, taken by me near Pasadena, June 3, ('93). Sets 6 to 11, usually 9.

136. Pygmy Owl. Quite a number of specimens have been taken in midwinter in the mountains north of Pasadena. They undoubtedly breed in the higher ranges, and are driven to lower altitudes by the winter storms.

137. Roadrunner. Common resident of the brush and cactus-covered washes and mesas, though scarcer now than formerly. Nests principally toward the latter part of March, though I have taken fresh eggs in the vicinity of Pasadena from March 12 ('92) until June 12 ('93). There is apparently no such thing as a full set of Road-runners' eggs, as they are laid at intervals of several days, and incubation begins with the first egg. Thus I have found fresh and variously incubated eggs in the same nest with good-sized young. The largest number of eggs I have ever found in a nest at one time was seven.

138. Yellow-billed Cuckoo. Tolerably common summer resident in the willow regions of the lowlands. This bird, shy and of secretive habits, I have found easily overlooked. If carefully watched for, it will probably be found common where it is now seldom or not at all noticed. Breeds late. M.L. Wicks, jr., took a set of four slightly incubated eggs, a few miles east of Santa Monica, June 7, '89.

139. Belted Kingfisher. Occurs in considerable numbers during the migrations in suitable localities from the coast to the foothills, and a few are found at all seasons of the year. In the harbor of San Pedro they are in spring and fall very conspicuous, flying over the water or perching on the rigging of vessels.

140. Hairy Woodpecker. Locally common in wooded regions from the lowlands to the higher mountains. In severe winters they are sometimes quite numerous in the oak regions. Although this woodpecker breeds in moderate numbers, but one set has been taken. G.F. Morcom took a set of three slightly incubated eggs, May 2, 1897, at Cerritos, near Compton. On the same day another nest was found, containing one fresh egg. I have found nests in the latter part of June containing large young.

141. Downy Woodpecker. Not so common as Cabanis's [Hairy] Woodpecker, but found in about the same localities. I have never seen it above 4000 feet in the mountains. Sets have been taken in the willow regions in May.

142. Nuttall's Woodpecker. Common in any wooded locality from the lowlands up to 5000 feet in the mountains. Nests in considerable numbers in the willow regions. I took a set of three slightly incubated eggs, May 19 ('94); and R. Arnold reports a set of three, incubation begun, taken June 6 ('96). These indicate the approximate extent of the breeding season.

143. White-headed Woodepcker. A common resident of the pine regions on the higher ranges from 5000 feet to their summits. I have taken full-fledged young on Pine Flats as early as July 1.

144. Red-naped Sapsucker. Of occasional occurrence along the foothills in midwinter. Specimens taken in the vicinity of Pasadena by H.A. Gaylord and myself, Dec. 26 ('95), and Feb. 13 ('97).

145. Red-breasted Sapsucker. More or less common winter visitant in wooded districts. Oftenest noticed, even along noisy city streets, in pepper trees, the sap of which this bir seems to particularly like. I have noted this woodpecker in Pasadena from Oct. 9 ('95) to March 21 ('97).

146. Williamson's Sapsucker. Occurs irregularly in winter in the coniferous timber on the mountains. So far, the records confined to the months of October, November, and December. October 31 and November 1, '97, as many as a dozen were noted on Mt. Wilson.

147. Acorn Woodpecker. Abundant resident in the oak regions, and in much less numbers in the pines and firs up to 6000 feet in the mountains. Breeds in April and May: Earliest set, five fresh eggs, taken April 5 ('92), by R. Arnold in San Fernando Valley. Last set, four fresh, June 3 ('96), near Pasadena by H. Leland. Sets are of four to eight eggs.

148. Lewis's Woodpecker. Common winter visitant in the oak regions and occasionally on the mountains among the firs. Note in the vicinity of Pasadena by F.S. Daggett as early as September 30 ('96), and in the spring I have seen it as late as May 4 ('95).

149. Yellow-shafted "Eastern" Northern Flicker. An adult male of this eastern species was taken by E.C. Thurber at Alhambra, February 7, '90.

150. Red-shafted "Western" Northern Flicker. Common throughout the year in wooded localities, but most generally distributed and much more abundant in winter. Breeds from the willow regions in the lowlands up to 6000 feet in the mountains. Eggs usually laid in May. Earliest set, five fresh, taken April 16 ('96), in San Fernando Valley by C.E. Groesbeck; last set, four slightly incubated, taken near Pasadena, June 15 ('94), by H.A. Gaylord. Several "hybrid" Flickers have been taken in the county.

151. Common Poorwill. Common in spring, summer and fall in the foothill regions, and occasional up to 6000 feet on brushy slopes in the mountains. During the spring and fall migrations the note of this bird is frequently heard at night far out on the mesas and uplands. E. Simmons, who resides at the base of the mountains north of Pasadena, states that he hears this bird during every month of the year, though from December 15 to January 20 last year he heard none, and H.S. Swarth reports seeing a single individual during the last of December and early part of January, thus indicating that the Poor-will may remain throughout the year. The extent of the breeding season is shown by the following sets of two eggs each, taken by E. Simmons near North Pasadena: Set, fresh, April 21 ('95); set, incubation advanced, June 14 ('93).

152. Common Nighthawk. Rare migrant. I took a male and saw another, probably the female, in the evening of October 27, '96. The Nighthawk occurring in summer in the Sierras and northward through Oregon and Washington, is apparently identical with this common eastern species.

153. Lesser Nighthawk. Abundant summer resident, principally of the mesas and dry washes. First spring arrival noted H.A. Gaylord, March 21 ('96). Last individual in the fall, seen by me, September 4 ('94). Breeds mainly in May. First set, taken by me near Pasadena, two fresh, April 21 ('97); latest set, two slightly incubated, taken July 11 ('95), by H.S. Swarth in San Fernando Valley.

154. Black Swift. Rare migrant. I have seen it on two ocasions toward the last of August flying southeast over Pasadena. W.H. Wakely has a specimen mounted which was shot near Pasadena late in summer several years ago.

155. Vaux's Swift. Common migrant. Generally seen flying in scattered flocks over the mesas or along the bases of the mountains. Sometimes large companies tarry about reservoirs or ponds. According to my field notes the migrations occur as follows: In spring, April 22 ('96) to May 2 ('96); and fall, September 3 ('95) to Oct. 13 ('94).

156. White-throated Swift. Common in mountain regions in summer, and occasionally seen during the winter over the lowlands and mesas. Nests in crevices of the rock in the most inaccessible cliffs. E. Simmons took a set of two eggs, about one-third incubated, in a mountain canon north of Pasadena, May 30, '97. H.G. Rising took a set of two fresh eggs in the Santa Monica Mountains, June 16, '97.

157. Black-chinned Hummingbird. Summer resident from the lowlands to the summit of the mountains, but most abundant in the foothill regions, where it breeds in the canons in some years by the thousands. Nests are generally situated near a stream, and are found mostly after the middle of May. I have taken fresh eggs by April 29 ('95), which I consider very early for this species, and as late as July 8 ('95); I found a nest containing two half-grown young near Pasadena, August 24 ('95), which of course is very late. The abundance of Hummingbirds is very variable, depending on the growth of flowering plants. Usually after a wet winter they are far more numerous than after a dry one. The Black-chinned Hummingbird arrives in the vicinity of Pasadena, from the middle of April to the first week in May, and the majority disappear by the last of July. Extreme records from my note-book, April 3 ('95) and September 3 ('95). By the first of July, when the vegetation of the foothills becomes dry, and flowers cease to bloom, the Hummingbirds are found in countless thousands at higher elevations (6000 to 8500 feet), where summer is just dawning.

158. Costa's Hummingbird. Common summer resident in the mesa and foothill regions, though ranging from the lowlands to the higher mountains during migration. Arrives about the middle of April. My earliest and latest records, respectively, March 21 ('96) and September 26 ('96). Nests are, as a rule, found out in the barren washes or on the dry hill-sides, far from water. The breeding season extends through May and the early part of June. My earliest set was of two fresh eggs, taken near Pasadena, April 21 ('97), and the latest set, of two slightly incubated eggs, taken June 28 ('94), in the same locality.

159. Anna's Hummingbird. Common throughout the year form the lowlands to the foothill regions, and in July up to 8500 feet in the mountains. Like all the hummingbirds this species follows the flowers, and its local presence or absence is governed by their abundance or scarcity. Thus, in August and September hundreds of Anna's Hummers are to be found over the stubble fields and sunflower patches, attracted by the flowers of the "tar-weed." During the winter months they are found in profusion about the blossoming Eucalyptus trees. In January and February, when the weather is mild, they appear high on the mountain sides among the flowering manzanitas; and in March and April, in the blossoming orange groves in the valley, and about the currant bushes on the hill-sides. The Anna's Hummingbird is our only species breeding before the last of April. It nests numerously through February and March, and sets may be looked for from January to May. A.I. McCormick took a set of two eggs, considerably incubated, on December 21 ('95); and the same observer noted a nest and eggs in the middle of July ('97); both near Los Angeles.

160. Rufous Hummingbird. Very abundant, especially in the blossoming orange groves, during the spring migrations in April. Apparently entirely absent in winter. I have noted it at greater or less intervals from February 20 ('96) till October 5 ('97), during which time this hummer is evidently found somewhere in the county in varying numbers. Although the probabilities are that few breed in the higher mountains where I have taken adults and juveniles in July, I know of no authentic nesting records, notwithstanding that many eggs purporting to be of this species have been seen from this county. I have never noted this hummer, from April 29 until August 16, below 5000 feet, and it is doubtful if any breed south of the San Gabriel ranges.

161. Allen's Hummingbird. A tolerably common spring migrant, occurring along with the Rufous Hummer in the latter part of March and April.

162. Calliope Hummingbird. Common summer resident above 5000 feet in the mountains. I took juveniles near Mt. Waterman on July 14, '97. A few have been taken in April and early May, evidently in migration, on the lowlands and mesas, usually near the base of the mountains.

163. Eastern Kingbird. Only one record: An immature male taken by W.B. Judson at Santa Monica, August 31, '95.

164. Western Kingbird. Abundant in summer throughout the lowlands and mesas. My earliest and latest records are, respectively, March 17 ('96) and September 14 ('97). Breeds mainly toward the last of May, in the vicinity of ranches and along country roads. Earliest set, of three fresh eggs, taken May 7 ('93), by H.A. Gaylord in San Fernando Valley. Latest set, of three eggs, incubation about one-half, taken by me June 28 ('92) near Pasadena. Full sets in this vicinity consist of three to seven eggs, usually four or five.

165. Cassin's Kingbird. Common in winter in the lower parts of the country. I have noted it in the vicinity of Pasadena from September 16 ('95) until May 1 ('97). A few remain through the summer and probably breed in the western part of the county. H. Robertson saw a pair west of Los Angeles, June 9 ('97), which he has no doubt had a nest near by. I found several nests containing young in July ('93) in Simi Valley, just over the line in Ventura County, and I saw adults on this side at Chatsworth Park.

166. Ash-throated Flycatcher. Common summer resident from the oak regions of the lowlands up to 6000 feet in the mountains. Earliest arrival in the spring noted by H.A. Gaylord, April 4 ('96); and I have seen a very few as late as September, the last, Sept. 14 ('95). Breeds most commonly in the last week of May. Extremes: Set five fresh, taken by W.B. Judson, May 16 ('97) in the West Fork, north of Mt. Wilson; and a set of four fresh eggs, taken in the same locality by H. Leland, June 8 ('96).

167. Say's Phoebe. Common winter visitant over the mesas and lowlands. I have noted it in the vicinity of Pasadena from September 10 ('94), till March 14 ('95).

168. Black Phoebe. Common resident of the lowlands and occasional along streams up to 6000 feet in the mountains. Usually to be found near water, and especially about barns an stockyards. Eggs usually laid toward the last of April. Extremes: Set four, slightly incubated, taken by C.E. Groesbeck near Pasadena, March 28 ('97); and three fresh, taken by the same collector on the West Fork of the San Gabriel Canon, June 5 ('96). Sets are of three to five eggs, ordinarily four.

169. Olive-sided Flycatcher. Common in summer above 3000 feet in the mountains, and during the migrations frequently seen on the lowlands and mesas. This bird is a late arrival in the spring, my earliest record being April 24 ('96). In the fall the latest record was a specimen taken September 26 ('96); both near Pasadena. As this species nests in the tallest coniferous trees the eggs are hard to secure. W.B. Judson took a set of three considerably incubated eggs on Mt. Wilson, June 11, '97. Nearly fledged young ordinarily appear about the 15th of July.

170. Western Wood-Pewee. Common summer resident of the canons and coniferous forests up to 7000 feet. During the migrations, more or less common along streams and and in wooded localities on the lowlands. My notes give the earliest arrival in the vicinity of Pasadena, April 18 ('95), and the last in the fall, September 30, ('94). Breeds mainly in June. Extremes: Set 3, incubation slight, taken by A.I. McCormick near Los Angeles, May 25 ('95); and 3, slightly incubated, taken near Pasadena by H.A. Gaylord, July 11 ('94). Sets are of 2 to 4 eggs, mostly 3.

171. Pacific-Slope Flycatcher. Common summer resident of the mountain canons. During the migrations, noted all over the lowlands. My notes, taken in the vicinity of of Pasadena, show the earliest arrival March 30 ('96), and the last seen in the fall, October 10 ('96). Eggs are laid mostly during the latter part of May. My earliest set was of 4 considerably incubated eggs taken May 11 ('95); and the latest, of 4 slightly incubated eggs taken June 29 ('95). Full sets are almost always of 4.

172. Willow Flycatcher. Common in summer in the willow regions of the lowlands. Arrives late. My earliest record is May 4 ('95); latest in fall, September 26 ('96). Nests mostly in June. Extremes: Set 3, slightly incubated, taken by A.I. McCormick near Los Angeles, May 25 ('95), and a similar set taken by H.A. Gaylord near Pasadena, July 11 ('94). Full sets are ordinarily of three eggs. H. Robertson reports several sets of four each.

173. Hammond's Flycatcher. Common migrant. Most numerous in the spring, when it is observed mostly on the mesas alogn the base of the mountains. From H.A. Gaylord's notes, the earliest spring arrival was April 9 ('96), and the last to depart, May 9 ('96). In the fall I have seen this Flycatcher by the first week in September, and I took a specimen as late as October 30 ('97).

174. Gray Flycatcher. Apparently to be found in some portion of our County throughout the year. In fall, winter and spring it occurs in the vicinity of Pasadena and El Monte in small numbers. Scarcely a dozen specimens have been secured though they have been looked for with special interest. The earliest specimen in the fall was taken by H.A. Gaylord in the San Gabriel River bottom near El Monte, November 7 ('96), and the latest in spring, by me near Pasadena, May 4 ('97). Although I have pretty well explored the mountainous parts of the County, I have found the Gray Flycatcher in summer only in one limited locality, on the slopes of Mt. Waterman (7500 to 8500 feet). There, in July, this bird is not uncommon, though very shy, keeping in the tallest pines on the mountain sides. I secured full-fledged juveniles as early as July 11, ('97). Specimens of this species were identified by Wm. Brewster, its original describer, to whom I sent them for determination.

175. Vermillion Flycatcher. Rare winter visitant in the lowlands. A female was taken by G.F. Morcom in Los Angeles, October 17, '95. H.A. Gaylord took specimens at El Monte, October 17, '96 (immature male), Dec. 8, '95 (adult male) and Feb. 8, '96 (adult female). Besides these specimens actually taken, others have been occasionally seen in winter in the San Gabriel River bottom.

176. Horned Lark. Abundant resident over most of the lowlands and mesas. Especially numerous on the alkali pasture lands a few miles inland from the coast. In fall and early winter, large flocks gather on newly planted grain fields, and at that season do some damage. Begins breeding early, and continues well into the summer. I have found nearly fledged young the last week in March. I took sets of 3 and 4 fresh eggs on April 17, '95, at Pasadena. G.F. Morcom took an incomplete set of 2 fresh eggs in the San Fernando Valley, June 5, '95.

177. Steller's Jay. Common resident of the coniferous regions in the mountains. During severe winters this Jay appears in the foot-hills along with the Belding's [Scrub] Jay, and sometimes even in the oak regions at lower elevations on the mesas. Breeds late. I took a set of 4, considerably incubated, on Jun 1, '95, and C.E. Groesbeck took a set of three fresh eggs, on June 4, '96. Both were in the mountains a few miles north of Pasadena. I secured an adult female of this species in perfect albino plumage on October 10, '96.

178. Scrub Jay. Common resident of the scrub oak regions of the foot-hills and mesas. Less common on the brushy mountain sides up to 6000 feet. Breeds usually in April. A nest was found near Pasadena on March 25 ('97), which contained young about two-thirds grown, this was unusually early. The latest set was of five fresh eggs taken H.A. Gaylord, May 25 ('95). This is undoubtedly the form to which our Aphelocoma are referable, for they are not the same as the true A. californica found further north. The habitat of A. c. obscura, which was described from the San Pedro Martir Mountains, Lower California, probably extends north, though less and less typically, as far as Tehachapi.

179. Common Raven. Common resident in the lower parts of the County, principally in the hill country. Frequently seen flying over the valleys from one range of hills to another, but as a general thing very shy and not venturing into settled regions. Lee Chambers took a set of three slightly incubated eggs near Santa Monica, May 9, '96.

180. Chihuahuan Raven. F.S. Daggett found the partly decomposed remains of one of these birds under a tree in San Fernando Valley, April 18, '97. Possibly the ravens which are common in that section are of this species.

181. Common Crow. Abundant resident in the lowlands. Breeds commonly in the willow regions in April. Earliest set, of five fresh eggs, taken by M.L. Wicks Jr., near Santa Monica, April 1, ('93). Latest, of five considerably incubated eggs taken in San Fernando Valley by R. Arnold, May 17, ('94). Sets are of four or five eggs, mostly the latter number.

182. Clark's Nutcracker. Common resident in the coniferous forests above 6000 feet. In the vicinity of Mt. Waterman they are very numerous, and I secured full-grown juveniles there in July ('97).

183. Pinyon Jay. Irregular visitant in the County, mostly in the higher mountains. In the fall of '95, from September 1 to 21, good-sized flocks were seen every day or two in the vicinity of Pasadena flying northwest over the mesas and along the foot-hills. A small flock alighted in some eucalyptus trees in the heart of Pasadena, and remained several minutes before continuing their flight.

184. Yellow-headed Blackbird. Occurs in large wandering flocks in the lowlands. The adult males are usually seen in bands by themselves, not mixing with the larger flocks which are made up of females and immature males. H.S. Swarth found this species nesting in small numbers in the tule beds of "Dominguez" Slough. Nests all contained young, June 19, '97.

185. Red-winged Blackbird. Abundant resident of the lowlands, nesting mostly in tule beds, though often in grain fields, willow thickets and even on the ground. Breeds in the latter part of April and in May. Reliable data concerning the red-winged blackbirds is hard to obtain, as the forms are easily confused, and may even occur breeding together in one locality.

186. "Sonora" Red-winged Blackbird. A blackbird taken by F.S. Daggett near Pasadena, November 7, '96, is identified by Robert Ridway as of this species as of this subspecies. I have other specimens apparently identical with this bird, taken in March at El Monte. Our blackbirds will require a good deal of study before they can be properly understood.

187. "Bicolored" Blackbird. Several specimens of this form have been taken in winter at Bixby and El Monte, and it may breed in this County, as it does commonly to the northward; but I have not reliable data, although many eggs purporting to be of this bird have been sent from the County.

188. Tricolored Blackbird. In the lowlands this species occurs in considerable numbers throughout the year. F.S. Daggett has found it numerous at Bixby during the winter. G.F. Morcom found a colony nesting near Compton, and May 8 ('97), took 35 sets of slightly incubated eggs.

189. Western Meadowlark. A common resident of Meadows and fields from the coast to the base of the mountains. In winter it gathers locally into good-sized flocks, but in summer is more generally distributed. Breeds early: I have seen birds carrying nesting material in January. G.F. Morcom took a set of five slightly incubated eggs, near Los Angeles, March 9 ('95). E. Simmons took a set of four, slightly incubated, near Pasadena, June 7, ('94).

190. Scott's Oriole. H.S. Swarth saw an adult male of this species near Los Angeles on April 19, '95. Although the bird was not secured, I have no hesitancy in considering this a good record,a s Mr. Swarth is familiar with the species in Arizona, and is sure of the correctness of his identity.

191. Hooded Oriole. Common in summer about orchards and gardens. Occurs mostly in the mesa regions, but it sometimes follows up the mountain canons as high as 4000 feet, especially where there are sycamore trees. My notes show the first arrival to be a male on March 15 ('97), and the last seen in the fall, a juvenile, September 18 ('97). Two broods are usually reared in a season. The earliest set was of four slightly incubated eggs taken by me in Pasadena, April 26, ('95). H. Leland found a nest August 3 ('97), containing one fresh egg. On August 25 this nest held a brood of small young. Sets are most always of four.

192. Bullock's Oriole. Abundant in summer on the lowlands and mesas. My notes give the first arrival, March 16 ('96) and the latest seen, August 10 ('97). These records were taken in Pasadena, and I have no doubt but this bird is found much later in the fall in other parts of the County. Breeds mostly in May. First set, five fresh, taken by me near Pasadena, May 7 ('95); last set, five incubation advanced, taken by H.A. Gaylord near Pasadena, July 18, ('94).

193. Brewer's Blackbird. Abundant resident throughout the lower parts of the County. Full sets of eggs are found by the last of April. Evan Davis reports taking eggs in the vicinity of Orange, as early as March 16th.

194. Evening Grosbeak. E.B. Towne secured an adult male near Pasadena, December 28, '94. It was with a flock of Western Lark Sparrows among some oak trees. This is our only record.

195. Purple Finch. Common winter visitant on the mesas and lowlands, haunting thickets and bushy places in small companies. I have noted it about Pasadena from October 27 ('96), till April 29 ('96). This species probably breeds sparingly in portions of the mountains. I took an adult pair which evidently had a nest near by, on Mt. Wilson, June 22, ('95).

196. Cassin's Finch. Common resident of the mountains from 4000 feet up to the summits. I have found it rather numerous in July on Mt. Waterman, inhabiting pine forests. No juveniles were noted, though the females secured showed signs of having recently incubated. This species occurs rarely in winter as low as the foothills, and then but sparingly. At that season they gather in small flocks, feeding in the brush, and seem not to mind the snow, just so the bushes are not entirely covered.

197. House Finch. This is the well-known "linnet," an abundant resident everywhere from the coast to the foothills. In winter large flocks often gather in sunflower patches and open fields, but in spring they are pretty well distributed, and nest almost anywhere, even in cactus. Very numerous and familiar about houses and gardens. In the summer these birds do considerable damage to the fruit crop. Breeds in April, May, and June. Earliest set, four fresh eggs, noted by F.B. Jewett near Pasadena, August 1 ('96). Sets are of three to six eggs, ordinarily four or five.

198. American Goldfinch. Spinus tristis salicamanus Grinnell. "Willow Goldfinch." Common resident of the lowlands. In summer they are almost wholly confined to the willow regions, but in winter they gather into flocks and wander everywhere, even into the mountain canons, where they feed on the buds and seeds of sycamores and alders. Breeds mostly in May and June, though I have found fresh eggs early in April, and small young in August. Sets are four or five.

199. Lesser Goldfinch. Abundant resident of the foothill regions up to 3000 feet in the canons. Less common in the lowlands and up to 6000 feet in the mountains. Numerous about gardens and orchards and in common with the other goldfinches, popularly called "Wild Canaries." Breeds mostly from April to July, but I have found eggs as early as March 22, and in the fall, at least around my home place in Pasadena, they breed regularly until September and in a few cases later. On October 21 ('95) I took a set of three slightly incubated eggs, and during the first week of November ('97) two broods of young left their nests. In all cases these late nests are built in evergreens, and a considerable height above the ground.

200. Lawrence's Goldfinch. Probably occurs throughout the year, but common only during the spring and early summer months. Inhabits mainly the mesas and mountain canons and pine forests up to 6000 feet. Breeds in May. The earliest set, of five fresh eggs, was taken by G.F. Morcom at Los Angeles, April 23 ('92); and the latest, a set of five slightly incubated eggs, May 27 ('93), taken by me near Pasadena. I have never noted this goldfinch during the fall months, that is, from September to November, in any part of the county, but in December and on until the last of March, small flocks haunt the banks of the arroyos and weed patches, after which they pair off and scatter through the orchards and canons.

201. Pine Siskin. Irregular winter visitant in the willow regions of the lowlands. In 1892 this bird was very abundant during February and March; and it again appeared though in smaller numbers, during the same months in 1897. They were noted in the neighborhood of El Monte as late as March 20 ('97). In July ('97) I found the Pine Siskin to be tolerably common in the vicinity of Mt. Waterman (7000 to 8500 feet). An adult female was secured on July 14, which was evidently incubating, and a few days later I saw a full-fledged brood of young following their parents.

202. Western Vesper Sparrow. Common winter visitant. Found in stubble fields and washes, especially on the dry mesas. My earlies and latest records, respectively, September 14 ('97) and March 19 ('95); both near Pasadena.

203. Oregon Vesper Sparrow. Common winter visitant occurring in company with the last, but possibly more numerous on the damper meadows of the lowlands. My earliest record for this subspecies is September 16 ('95). H.A. Gaylord has noted the latest, April 25 ('96); both near Pasadena.

204. Savannah Sparrow. Abundant winter visitant, inhabiting fields and meadows from the coast to the mesas. In the vicinity of Pasadena my earliest and latest records are, respectively, September 18 ('97) and May 3 ('93). I have reason to believe that a few remain to breed in the lowlands near the coast.

205. Belding's Savannah Sparrow. Abundant resident of the salt water marshes along the coast. Nests in the marsh grass just above the reach of the tide. Breeds mostly in May. Earliest set, four fresh eggs, taken by G.F. Morcom at Ballona, April 14 ('97); latest set, three, incubation advanced, taken by H.A. Gaylord near Long Beach, July ('95).

206. Large-billed Savannah Sparrow. Common in winter in the salt marshes and along the beaches, but far less numerous than the Belding's Sparrow. In San Pedro Harbor this bird frequents the wharves and breakwaters, and even hops fearlessly about the decks of vessels, feeding on crumbs and flies. Although observed from August to late in April, this sparrow apparently disappears altogether during the summer months, but where it breeds seems to be as yet unknown.

207. Grasshopper Sparrow. On account of its secretive habits this sparrow is not often met with. It frequents grassy fields, where its mouse-like habit of running through the grass, rather than taking flight, renders it difficult to discover. During the winter of 1891-'92 a pair remained in a vacant lot in Pasadena, and became quite tame, so that I could approach within an arm's length without frightening them. G.F. Morcom took an adult male of this species at Los Angeles, April 30 ('95), which is the latest known occurrence in the spring. W.B. Judson took a specimen at Highland Park, near Los Angeles, Aug. 10 ('97), which might indicate that it had remained during the summer.

208. Lark Sparrow. Common resident in the lower portion of the county. Quite numerous and familiar about cultivated fields and orchards. Breeds mostly in April and May, nesting either on the ground or in trees and bushes. Earliest set, of four fresh eggs, taken by C.E. Grosbeck near Pasadena, April 18 ('95); latest, of three slightly incubated eggs taken by H.A. Gaylord, July 12 ('94). Sets are of three to five eggs.

209. Mountain "Sierra Nevada" White-crowned Sparrow. Abundant winter visitant from the coast to the foot-hills. Weedpatches and brushy tracts at times fairly swarm with these sparrows. They arrive regularly about the last week in September, my earliest date being September 15, ('95). The bulk leave early in April, though I have shot specimens as late as May 3 ('96).

210. Gambel "Alaska-Canada" White-crowned Sparrow. H.S. Swarth has a specimen, typical of this subspecies, taken at Los Angeles, January 13, '96. Many of our white-crowned sparrows are intermediate between gambellii and intermedia, indeed, most which I have examined, are..

211. Golden-crowned Sparrow. Common winter visitant from the mesas up to 5000 feet on brushy mountain sides. My earliest and latest records are, respectively, September 26, ('96), and May 9 ('96).

212. White-throated Sparrow. H.A. Gaylord secured an immature female near Pasadena, November 21, '94. W.E. Bryant took an adult in Los Angeles, February 25, '97. These are our only records.

213. Chipping Sparrow. Common resident of orchards and gardens in the mesa regions, and in summer numerous in the coniferous regions of the mountains up to 8500 feet. Breeds mainly in May, laying usually four eggs. First set, of three, probalby incomplete taken near Pasadena by E. Parker April 19 ('96); latest set, 3, slightly incubated, noted by H.A. Gaylord, June 19 ('94).

214. Brewer's Sparrow. Tolerably common in summer from 5000 to 7000 feet on the brushy mountain sides between Pine Flats and Mt. Waterman. I secured full-grown juveniles there, July 3 ('97). In spring and fall it occurs sparingly on the mesas and lowlands. I have taken specimens near Pasadena on March 31 ('96), and April 17 ('97). In the fall H.S. Swarth noted good-sized flocks in San Fernando Valley, September 22, '97, and took an immature male in Los Angeles, September 5, '95.

215. Black-chinned Sparrow. Common in summer on brushy mountain sides. I have noted it in the breeding season from the base of the foot-hills up to 7000 feet, where the environment was suitable. In July ('97), I found this bird numerous in the vicinity of Pine Flats, and secured full-grown juveniles, July 3. During the migrations this sparrow occurs sparingly on the mesas along the foot-hills. The earliest spring record is that of a specimen taken by H.S. Swarth at Cahuenga Valley April 1 ('96); the latest in the fall, an immature male, taken by me near Pasadena, September 10 ('97).

216. "Slate-colored" Dark-eyed Junco. This bird, usually considered as "accidental" in California, is apparently of pretty regular occurrence in this vicinity, especially so as compared with some other winter visitants which are expected to appear regularly. I took a female near Pasadena November 14 ('96). H.S. Swarth took a male at Los Angeles, February 8 ('97). H.A. Gaylord took a female at Pasadena, February 27 ('97). F.S. Daggett took a male near Pasadena, March 4 ('97), and saw at least seven others in a flock, which had also been seen a week before in the same locality. F.S. Daggett took a male near Pasadena, March 15 ('93), from a flock of fifteen, all apparently of the same species.

217. "Oregon" Dark-eyed Junco. A single specimen was taken by F.S. Daggett at Pasadena, November 24, ('96). This subspecies can at most be but a rare winter visitant.

218. "Thurber's Sierra Nevada" Dark-eyed Junco. Abundant in summer in the coniferous forests on the mountains. In the winter there is a partial movement to lower elevations, and it appears in small flocks down to the mesas and even further. In the vicinity of Pasadena I have noted it a early as October 3 ('94), and as late as April 13 ('95). Breeds exclusively in the mountains, mainly above 5000 feet. I noted fully fledged young in the mountains north of Pasadena on May 19 ('95). This is extremely early, as the usual nesting time is the latter part of May. The latest set reported is of 5 slightly incubated eggs taken by Ralph Arnold on Mt. Wilson, June 12 ('92). Full sets consist of 3 to 5 eggs.

219. Yellow-eyed Junco. A single specimen, a female was taken by W.B. Judson near Pasadena, Oct. 26, '94. This is our only record.

220. Black-throated Sparrow. I took an adult male in the Arroyo Seco near Pasadena, April 10, '97. This is our only record.

221. Sage Sparrow. Common resident locally on brush-covered washes on the mesas, and in summer up to 5000 feet on the mountain sides. I have taken full-grown youn near Pasadena by June 19 ('97).

222. "Nevada" Sage Sparrow. Tolerably common in summer on the brush-covered slopes in a limited locality at the head of Tujunga Canon (3000 to 6000 feet). I secured juveniles near Pine Flats, July 3 ('97). In winter the Sage Sparrow occurs sparingly on the mesas along the base of the mountains.

223. Rufous-crowned Sparrow. Tolerably common locally in the foot-hills, where it undoubtedly breeds. Occurs throughout the year, but most numerous in April.

224. Song Sparrow. Abundant resident in the lowlands, and in the mesa region in the vicinity of streams and ponds. Breeds mainly from April to June. I took a set of three slightly incubated eggs in Pasadena, March 4 ('96), and on the same date, found a brood of half-fledged young. This is of course exceptionally early. Full sets are of three to five eggs, usually four.

225. Lincoln's Sparrow. Common winter visitant in the lower portion of the County. Generally found in brush in the vicinity of water courses. H.S. Swarth noted the first arrival at Los Angeles, September 18 ('97), and the last in spring was seen by me at Pasadena, (May 3 ('96).

226. "Southwest Alaskan" Fox Sparrow. Abundant winter visitant in the brushy tracts of the mountains and foot-hills, and occasionally down on the mesas. H.A. Gaylord reports the earliest in the fall, September 13 ('95); and I took the last specimen in the spring, April 10 ('97). I have a specimen taken on Mt. Wilson, October 31 ('97), which is intermediate in color and markings between this subspecies and true P. iliaca.

227. Yosemite "Thick-billed" Fox Sparrow. Common winter visitnat on the brushy mountain sides. I have noted it from October 10 ('96), till April 17 ('97).

228. Slate-colored "Small-billed Rockies" Fox Sparrow. A female was taken near Los Angeles, December 14, '96, by H.S. Swarth. This is our only positively identified specimen.

229. Stephens "Large-billed Californian" Fox Sparrow. Common in summer on the higher mountains. In July, '97, I found it numerous in the vicinity of Mt. Waterman, above 7000 feet. Its haunts were the growth of brakes and willows which lined the water courses in the canons. I secured full-grown by July 10. Probably found in winter at lower elevations, though I have not as yet observed specimens at that season.

230. Spottted Towhee. Abundant resident of brushy regions throughout most of the County. Breeds in the mountains up to the limit of the undergrowth, but in winter few are seen above the foot-hills. Nests mostly in May and June. Extremes: Set four, considerably incubated, taken by A.I. McCormick near Los Angeles, April 15 ('95); set three fresh, taken by me on Barley Flats (5000 feet), July 10 ('95). Full sets are of two to five eggs, usually four.

231. Green-tailed Towhee. Common summer resident of the higher mountains. I found it rather numerous in the vicinity of Mt. Waterman in July ('97), and secured nearly fledged juveniles on July 10. Occurs occasionally during the migrations along the base of the mountains. H.A. Gaylord noted specimens near Pasadena, April 4 ('96), and April 29 ('97).

232. California Towhee. Abundant resident of the mesa and foot-hill regions; less common in portions of the lowlands and up to 4000 feet on the brushy mountain sides. Breeds mostly in April and May. I found a brood of nearly fledged young in Pasadena, March 20 ('96), and I have noted fresh eggs late in July. Full sets are of two to five eggs, generally three or four. W.H. Wakely has a perfect albino of this species taken near Pasadena, February 13, '86.

233. Black-headed Grosbeak. Common summer resident in the willow regions of the lowlands, and locally up to 7000 feet in the mountains. Arrives early in April. My earliest record is a male, March 30 ('96); and last in the fall, September 22 ('96). Nests mostly in the latter part of May. Extremes: Set three, slightly incubated, taken by W.B. Judson near Los Angeles, May 9 ('97) and set three fresh taken by G.F. Morcomin the Cahuenga Valley, June 22 ('94). Full sets are of two to four eggs, principally three.

234. Blue Grosbeak. Tolerably common in summer; found mainly in the mesa regions, and very local even there. Earliest seen near Pasadena, April 25 ('96). Extreme nesting dates: Set four, slightly incubated, taken by M.L. Wicks Jr., near Los Angeles, May 18 ('89); and set four, slightly incubated, taken by H. Robertson near Los Angeles, June 24 ('93).

235. Lazuli Bunting. Common summer resident of the foot-hills and mesas. Extreme dates of arrival and departure according to my notes are respectively, April 4 ('96), and September 17 ('97). This species becomes very scarce after July, and I have only two records for September, including the one quoted above and an earlier. Broods mainly in the latter part of May. Extremes: Set three fresh taken by E.D. Parker near Pasadena, April 30 ('95); and a slightly incubated set taken by A.I. McCormick near Los Angeles, June 23 ('95). Full sets are of two to five, in only one instance of the latter number, usually of four eggs.

236. Lark Bunting. Casual visitant. An adult male was taken by Edward Simmons at Newhall, May 3, '97, and two others were seen.

237. Western Tanager. Common summer resident of the mountain canons and coniferous forests from 1500 to 7000 feet altitude. Extreme dates of arrival and departure are respectively, April 19 ('96) and September 30 ('95). During the spring migrations, in the latter part of April and early May, tanagers occur numerously on the mesas and lowlands, feeding on fruit and berries. Breeds ordinarily about the first week in June. Extremes: Set three, fresh, taken by Ralph Arnold, May 5 ('95); and set three, slightly incubated, taken by Edward Simmons, June 30 ('95); both in the canons north of Pasadena. Sets are of three or four, and in case, noted by Ralph Arnold, of five eggs.

238. Purple Martin. Common in summer mostly in the mountains where they nest in holes in the tall dead firs. Frequently seen flying over the mesas in spring and late summer. A few breed in the oak districts to the west of San Fernando Valley. Ralph Arnold has found them nest-building there by April 1. As yet no eggs of this bird have been taken in the County.

239. Cliff Swallow. Abundant in summer in the lower parts of the County. Earliest arrival in the spring, noted at Pasadena by H.A. Gaylor, March 8 ('96); latest in the fall, seen by me at Long Beach, September 7 ('95). Nests mostly on buildings, from May to July. Sets are of four to six eggs.

240. Barn Swallow. Occurs as a tolerably common migrant over the lower parts of the County. My earliest record is March 27 ('96); and in the fall F.S. Daggett has noted it as late as September 30 ('96); both in the vicinity of Pasadena. A few remain through the summer and nest on the bluffs along the coast in the neighborhood of Santa Monica.

241. Tree Swallow. Abundant in spring and summer in the willow regions of the lowlands, especially in the vicinity of ponds and marshes. The majority leave in the fall, but a few remain throughout the winter. By the middle of March this swallow again appears in full force and is soon nest-building. Breeds mostly from the last of April through May. Earliest set, four fresh, taken H.J. Leland near El Monte, April 15 ('97); latest set, five incubated about one-half, taken by E.D. Parker at El Monte, June 9 ('95). Sets are of four to six eggs.

242. Violet-green Swallow. Abundant summer resident of hte mountainous districts, and occurring during migration on the mesas and lowlands. Arrives in large numbers along the foot-hills by the middle of March. My earliest and latest dates are respectively, February 16 ('95) and October 20 ('94). Breeds principally before the last of May. Ralph Arnold took a set of five fresh eggs on Mt. Wilson, June 19 ('93). Full sets are of four or five eggs, usually the latter number.

243. Bank Swallow. Common in summer in suitable localities on the lowlands. Large numbers nest in the sandy bluffs along the coast. Evan Davis states it to breed in June and July, laying from four to six eggs.

244. Northern Rough-winged Swallow. Common over the mesas during the spring migrations. In the vicinity of Pasadena, this swallow is most numerous in April, though I have taken it as early as March 12 ('97) near El Monte. A few pair remain to breed along water courses with steep sandy banks. H.A. Gaylord furnishes our only nesting data, that of a set of four fresh eggs taken May 30, '96, near Pasadena. The nest was in a hole in a cement wall in the Arroyo Seco.

245. Cedar Waxwing. Irregular winter visitant. At times, usually in the spring months, this species visits us in large numbers, feeding in flocks on the berries of the pepper trees. My earliest and latest records are, respectively, September 14 ('97) and May 17 ('95). H.J. Leland tells us that he saw a pair near South Pasadena, June 16 ('97). However, we have as yet no evidence that this bird nests within the County.

246. Phainopepla. Common summer resident, almost exclusively of the dry mesa regions. In the washes and arroyos in the vicinity of Pasadena it is very numerous. Edward Simmons has noted the earliest arrival, April 9 ('97); and H.S. Swarth noted one near Los Angeles as late as October 19 ('97). An adult male was observed by H.S. Swarth at Los Angeles, January 31 ('98), which must be considered as very unusual. Breeds mostly in June. H.A. Gaylord reports the earliest and latest sets: they are respectively, a set of two, slightly incubated, taken May 4 ('94), and a set of two fresh eggs taken July 28 ('94). In some seasons most of the sets are of two eggs each, and in other years almost all are of three. This bird is popularly know as Black Mockingbird, and Black-crested Flycatcher.

247. Desert Loggerhead Shrike. Occasional winter visitant, probably straggling from the Desert. I have a specimen taken near Pasadena, December 8, '94.

248. Loggerhead Shrike. Abundant resident of the lowlands and mesas. The majority nest in the latter part of March and early April. Extreme instances are, a set of five fresh eggs taken by H.J. Leland, February 14 ('97): and a set of six fresh eggs noted by H.A. Gaylord, June 28 ('94); both near Pasadena. Full sets are of four to seven eggs, most often six. This bird is popularly known as the butcher-bird, and is generally disliked; but as it is such a persistent destroyer of the "Jerusalem Cricket" and other injurious insects, it is undoubtedly one of our most beneficial birds from the agriculturalist's standpoint and should be protected.

249. Warbling Vireo. Abundant migrant in most of the County, and a tolerably common summer resident in portions of the mountains. The spring migrations occur mainly in the first three weeks of April, and the return movement, the last week of September. My earliest and latest records are respectively, March 23 ('95) and Oct. 2 ('95). This bird breeds less commonly than any other of our vireos. It occurs very locally, mainly in the mountains, where I found it in the vicinity of Mt. Waterman up to 8000 feet in July. H.A. Gaylord took a set of three slightly incubated eggs in the Arroyo Seco near Pasadena, May 9 ('94); and I took a set of three fresh eggs on Pine Flats (6000 feet) on July 2 ('97).

250. Cassin's Vireo. Common in summer in the mountains, and during the migrations on the mesas. My earliest and latest dates are, April 4 ('96) and October 2 ('95). Breeds numerously in the mountain canons from the footh-hills to 4000 feet elevation, nesting mostly in cottonwoods and white oaks in May. Extreme nesting dates from my field notes: A set five, incubation nearly complete, May 11 ('95); and a set of three, slightly incubated, June 26 ('93); both taken in the Arroyo Seco Canon north of Pasadena.

251. Hutton's Vireo. A common bird throughout the year; although it occurs from the willow regions in the lowlands up to 6000 feet in the mountains, decided preference seems to be shown for the oak regions of the mesas and foothills. The breeding season is quite extensive, as shown by the following extremes: A set of three fresh eggs, taken by me in the foothills north of Pasadena, March 7 ('96); and a set of four fresh eggs, taken by H.A. Gaylord near Pasadena, July 15 ('94). However, the majority of sets are laide in April and May. Full sets are of three or four.

252. Least Bell's Vireo. Abundant in summer in the willow regions of the lowlands, and along streams up to the foothills. Arrives by the first week in April and leaves during the last week of August. My earliest and latest dates are, respectively, March 26 ('96) and September 8 ('97). Breeds mainly during the latter part of May. Extremes: Sets of four fresh eggs, both taken near Los Angeles by H. Robertson, earliest, April 28 ('97) and latest, June 15, ('97). Full sets are almost invariably of four eggs.

253. Black and White Warbler. Only one record: An immature female was taken in the Arroyo Seco neare Pasadena by H.A. Gaylord, October 2, '95.

254. Nashville Warbler. Common spring and fall migrant. Noted in the spring mostly in the foothills and mesa regions. Earliest specimen taken by me, April 4 ('96); latest, by H.A. Gaylord, May 1 ('96). In the fall this warbler appears mainly in the lowlands. In the vicinity of Los Angeles H.S. Swarth has noted it from September 13 ('97) to October 8 ('96).

255. Orange-crowned Warbler. Tolerably common in summer in canons on brushy mountain sides up to 6000 feet. Abundant spring migrant, appearing in the greatest numbers in April. Earliest specimen of this race, taken by me, March 6 ('97); last taken in the fall, September 8 ('97). Breeds in April and May. I took a female on April 4 ('96) which contained a fully formed egg. Juveniles were secured early in July ('95) on Pine Flats (6000 feet).

256. Island Orange-crowned Warbler. This subspecies appears in the vicinity of Pasadena in the oak regions and along the arroyos in large numbers during August, and even by the middle of July. Remains in diminishing numbers through the winter; the latest specimen noted in the spring was secured by me, February 29 ('96). This race is apparently quite distinct from the last, and is probably a visitant to the mainland from the neighboring islands of San Clemente and Santa Catalina at a season when the latter are dry and uninviting. The large size, especially of the bill and feet, and darker colors of H.c. sordida render it readily distinguishable from the small yellow lutescens. The birds found breeding in this county are evidently of the latter race.

257. Tennessee Warbler. Only one record. I shot an immature female in the Arroyo Seco Canon near Pasadena, September 27, '97.

258. Yellow Warbler. Common summer resident in wooded localities, especially along streams, from the willow regions to 5000 feet altitude in the mountains. My earliest and latest dates are, April 2 ('95) and September 22 ('94). During the migrations in April and September, this warbler is particularly numerous and well distributed over the mesas and lowlands. The breeding season commences by the second week in May. Extreme nesting dates: Set four, slightly incubated, taken by H.A. Gaylord near Los Angeles, May 12 ('95); and set of three fresh eggs, taken by me near Pasadena, June 26 ('93). Full sets are almost invariably of four eggs.

259. "Myrtle" Yellow-rumped Warbler. Tolerably common winter visitant, associating with Audubon's Warbler. Specimens have been taken during December, January and February.

260. "Audubon" Yellow-rumped Warbler. Very abundant and generally distributed throughout the county during winter; in moderate numbers in the higher mountains through the summer. It appears in the lowlands about the first week in October, and remains until the first of April, while I have noted a few along the foothills as late as May 1. In summer it is found in the coniferous forests on the mountains above 5000 feet altitude. W.B. Judson took a set of five fresh eggs on Mt. Wilson, May 29, '97. I observed full-grown juveniles in the same locality on June 22 ('95).

261. Magnolia Warbler. Only one record: H.S. Swarth took an immature female near Los Angeles on October 21, '97.

262. Black-throated Gray Warbler. Common summer resident of the mountains from the foothills up to 6000 feet, and in the migrations occurring in considerable numbers over the mesas and lowlands. The earliest noted was a male taken by me, March 23 ('95), and by the second week in April they are present in full force. H.A. Gaylord has the latest record, October 23 ('95). During the breeding season, the scrub oak regions of the mountain sides are the preferred haunts of this warbler. Most of the sets have been taken about the last week of May, but I found a nest with four small young, in the mountains north of Pasadena, May 19 ('95), and Ralph Arnold took a set of three considerably incubated eggs in the same vicinity, June 26 ('96). Four eggs constitute the usual set.

263. Townsend's Warbler. Tolerably common migrant, though not regularly so. During the last week of April, '96, it was fairly numerous in the vicinity of Pasadena, but in the spring of 1897 none were observed. The first noted wa on April 22, and the latest, May 13. In the fall I have taken one specimen, Oct. 2 ('95). A few probably pass the winter with us if the weather is not severe. I saw several on Mt. Wilson, Dec. 12 ('96), and took a specimen in the same locality, January 27 ('94).

264. Hermit Warbler. In the spring migrations this warbler is in some years tolerably common, though not detected at all in others. In the spring of '96 it was numerous about Pasadena. I noted the earliest, April 22, and the latest, May 17. H.S. Swarth reports a specimen near Los Angeles, September 10, ('97).

265. MacGillivray's Warbler. This is a common spring migrant along the base of the foot-hills, and in the fall in much smaller numbers out on the lowlands. It arrives by the second week in April, and I have taken it as early as April 4 ('96); the last was observed by H.A. Gaylord, May 13, ('96). In the fall, H.S. Swarth has noted it in the vicinity of Los Angeles from September 4 ('97) to October 13, ('96).

266. Common Yellowthroat. Common resident of the marshy tracts throughout the lowlands, and appears abundantly during the migrations along the foot-hills and on the mesas.

267. Yellow-breasted Chat. Common summer resident in the willow regions of the lowlands, and in small numbers during the migrations along the foot-hills.

268. Wilson's Warbler. Abundant migrant throughout the lower parts of the county, and more or less common summer resident in the willow regions.

269. American Pipit. Abundant winter visitant in the lowlands, especially numerous and more generally distributed during the seasons of heavy rain-fall. My notes taken in the vicinity of South Pasadena and El Monte, give the earliest and latest respectively, August 29 ('95), and April 3 ('95).

270. American Dipper. Met with in small numbers along streams in the mountainous parts of the county. Resident throughout the year. H. Arnold took a set of four slightly incubated eggs in Eaton's canon north of Pasadena, April 22, '94, and the same collector found a nest with four young in San Gabriel Canon, May 27, '94.

271. Sage Thrasher. Rare straggler from the Desert. H.S. Swarth secured a pair in San Fernando Valley, March 13, '97.

272. Northern Mockingbird. Common and familiar resident of orchards and gardens throughout the lower portion of the County, and of dry washes and arroyos in the mesa regions. Breeds as a rule by the first of May. I took a set of 4 considerably incubated eggs on April 16 ('95) which is my earliest date, and as two or even three broods are reared in a season, nesting continues sometimes into August. Full sets consist of four, rarely five eggs.

273. California Thrasher. Common resident of brushy localities from the lowlands up to 6000 feet in the mountains. Breeds mainly in March and April. H.J. Leland took a set of 2 considerably incubated eggs near Pasadena on January 27 ('97) which of course is exceptionally early. H.A. Gaylord took a set of of 3 fresh eggs near Pasadena, June 26 ('94) which is also exceptional in being so late. Full sets are of 2 to 4 eggs, usually 3.

274. Cactus Wren. Common resident locally on cactus covered washes in the mesa regions. Breeds mostly in April, but I took a set of 5 fresh eggs near Pasadena, March 18 ('92) and a set of 4 fresh eggs in the same locality June 28 ('92). Full sets are of 4 or 5 eggs, sometimes 6. M.L. Wicks, Jr. took a set of 7 fresh eggs near San Gabriel, May 25, ('89).

275. Rock Wren. Common winter visitant along dry washes, and tolerably common throughout the year in certain limited localities from the coast to the highest mountains. I took nearly fledged young near the summit of Mt. Waterman (8500 feet) on July 20 ('95).

276. Canyon Wren. Tolerably common resident in the mountain canons up to 6000 feet. Breeds in the rockiest and steepest canons usually in the neighborhood of a stream. I took a set of 5 eggs, incubation advances, in the Arroyo Seco Canon north of Pasadena, May 5 ('94) and a set of 6 fresh eggs in the same locality, June 23 ('93). These probably indicate the extent of the breeding season. Sets are of 5 to 7 eggs.

277. Bewick's Wren. Abundant resident of brushy mountain sides, the majority descending in winter to the foot-hills and mesas. Full-fledged youn appear commonly by the middle of May, so that nesting probably begins in April. Ralph Arnold took a set of 4 fresh eggs near San Fernando, June 7 ('96).

278. House Wren. Resident throughout the year, but much less common in winter than in summer. Occrus from the lowlands to the highest mountains. Generally found in wooded localities, where it breeds in May. Extreme nesting dates: Set of 8 fresh eggs taken by me near Pasadena, April 20 ('95), and a set of of 7 fresh eggs taken by H.A. Gaylord in the West Fork of the San Gabriel Canon, June 18 ('93). Sets are of 5 to 9 eggs, usually 7 or 8.

279. Winter Wren. So far, detected in small numbers during the winter only, in a very limited locality in the mountains north of Pasadena. I have secured specimens by October 23 ('97), and none later than January 25 ('96). The Arroyo Seco and Millard's Canons, and Mt. Wilson, are the only localities where they have been discovered.

280. Marsh Wren. Common resident of swampy regions in the lowlands. In fall and winter it appears in localities where not found at other seasons, and haunts weed-patches and rank grass. Breeds in the tule swamps principally in May. H. Leland found nests with young nearly two-thirds grown at El Monte by April 25 ('97). W.B. Judson took a set of 5 fresh eggs near Santa Monica, May 30 ('95).

281. Brown Creeper. Common resident of the coniferous forests on the mountains. It is observed from 3000 feet up to 8500 feet. Juveniles appear by the middle of July. W.B. Judson found a nest on Mt. Wilson, containing 3 fresh eggs, on May 29, ('97).

282. White-breasted Nuthatch. Common resident of the coniferous forests on the mountains; usually found above 4000 feet, but F.S. Daggett took a specimen in the oaks south of Pasadena, August 26, ('96). I took juveniles in the vicinity of Mt. Waterman by July 15 ('97).

283. Red-breasted Nuthatch. Irregular visitant in the mountains over 4000 feet. Occurs mostly in winter, but I found it on Mt. Wilson as late as May 9 ('96), and H.A. Gaylord noted it again on Barley Flats, by September 11 ('95).

284. Pygmy Nuthatch. Common resident of the coniferous forests on the higher mountains. It is abundant on Pine Flats, and I took full-grown juveniles there as early as July 2 ('97).

285. Oak Titmouse. Common resident of the coniferous regions from the lower country up to 6000 feet on the mountain sides. Breeds mainly in April. I took a set of nine fresh eggs near Pasadena, April 13 ('96), and a set of six slightly incubated eggs in the same locality, May 12 ('94). These probably indicate the extent of the breeding season.

286. Mountain Chickadee. Common resident in the coniferous forests on the mountains. Occasionally, in severe winters, a few descend to the oak regions out on the mesas, but they generally remain above 4000 feet. Full-grown young appear by the first of July, so that nesting probably takes place about the middle or last of May.

287. Wrentit. Abundant resident of brushy regions from the mesas up to 6000 feet on the mountain sides. Most numerous in the foot-hills, where it breeds during th latter part of April and in May. Earliest set, probably incomplete, of three fresh eggs taken by H.J. Leland near Pasadena, April 10 ('97); latest set of four considerably incubated eggs taken by me in the same locality, June 25 ('97). Sets are of three to five eggs, usually 4.

288. Bushtit. Abundant resident in wooded and brushy regions, especially in the foot-hills. Breeds generally in April. Extreme dates: Incomplete set of four eggs taken by C.E. Groesbeck near Pasadena, March 7 ('96), and a set of seven fresh eggs taken by H.A. Gaylord in the same locality, July 18 ('94). Full sets are of five to eight eggs, usually six or seven.

289. Golden-crowned Kinglet. Tolerably common mid-winter visitant on the higher mountains. So far, noted only on Mt. Wilson where it occurs in flocks of five to eight in the fir forests. I have observed it there as early as October 30, ('97), and specimens were secured October 31 ('96).

290. Ruby-crowned Kinglet. Abundant winter visitant throughout the County, and present throught the summer in small numbers on the highest mountains. Arrives in the lowlands early in October and leaves by the last of March. Extreme dates from observations in the vicinity of Pasadena: September 24 ('96), and April 15 ('96). On July 14 ('97), I took an adult female on Mt. Waterman (8500 feet), which undoubtedly had a nest in the vicinity, probably with young.

291. Blue-gray Gnatcatcher. Common resident in wooded and brushy localities, especially in the oak regions. Breeds mostly in May, but I found a nest near Pasadena containing young, May 4 ('95), and G.F. Morcom took a set of four fresh eggs in the Cahuenga Valley as late as June 12 ('93). Full sets are of four or five eggs.

292. California Gnatcatcher. Common resident in a few limited localities on brushy mesas and washes, principally along the base of the foot-hills. Numerous in San Fernando Valley and about Pomona and Claremont, but around Pasadena, which is between these two localities and apparently offers similar attractions, I have never seen but one specimen. Breeds mostly about the middle of May. E.D. Parker took a set of four fresh eggs near Claremont, April 12 ('97) and G.F. Morcom took a set of three slightly incubated eggs in San Fernando Valley, June 29 ('96). Full sets are of three to five eggs, generally four.

293. Townsend's Solitaire. Tolerably common winter visitant in the mountains, occasionally appearing as low as the mesas. My earliest and latest records from the vicinity of Mt. Wilson are, respectively, Oct. 30 ('97) and May 9 ('96).

294. Swainson's Thrush. Common summer resident in the willow regions of the lowlands Appears during the spring migrations, last of April and first week in May, on the mesas and in the mountain canons. H.A. Gaylord noted the earliest, April 12 ('96), and F.S. Daggett noted the last, September 14 ('96). Breeds mostly about the last week in May. Extremes: Set of 4 fresh eggs taken by C.E. Groesbeck near Pasadena, May 17 ('93), and a set of 3 slightly incubated eggs taken by H.A. Gaylord in the same locality, July 11 ('94).

295. Dwarf Hermit Thrush. Abundant winter visitant in most of the county, especially in the foot-hills, where it feeds on the berries of the California Holly. My earliest and latest records are, October 10 ('96) and May 9 ('96).

296. "Audubon's" Alaska Hermit Thrush. An adult male thrush taken by me near Pasadena, January 23, '97, was identified as of this race by Robert Ridgway.

297. American Robin. More or less common winter visitant throughout most of the county, remaining through the summer in small numbers on the higher mountains. Frequently appears in the lowlands and on the mesas in large flocks, especially in wet winters. In the early spring months they come into town, feeding on the berries of the pepper trees. My earliest and latest records in the neighborhood of Pasadena are, October 5 ('97) and April 17 ('97). M.L. Wicks, Jr., found a nest containing young but a day or two old, near Mt. Waterman, July 4, ('95).

298. Varied Thrush. Usually a common winter visitant, but occasionally, during the winter of '95-'96 for example, scarcely any are seen in the county. First arrival, a male noted by me November 25 ('96); latest in the spring, a female, April 10 ('97). Most common in the foot-hills, but noted from the crests of the mountains nearly to sea level. Especially numerous wherever the California Holly grows abundantly.

299. Western Bluebird. Common winter visitant in most of the lower parts of the county, and abundant through the summer and most of the winter in the higher mountains. A few remain through the summer and breed in the vicinity of of Pasadena. H.A. Gaylord reports a set of 4 slightly incubated eggs found near Pasadena, May 24, '92. Ed. Simmons took a set of six considerably incubated eggs near Newhall, May 4, ('97). H.J. Leland took a set of four fresh eggs on Pine Flats (6000 feet), June 6, ('96).

300. Mountain Bluebird. More or less common winter visitant in the lower parts of the county. Generally seen in large scattering flocks in vineyards and young orchards. I saw a small flock on Mt. Wilson, Oct. 31 ('97). H.A. Gaylord noted them near Pasadena as late as March 14, ('95).



AFTERWORD
by
Robert Jan "Roy" van de Hoek
Biologist - Geographer - Naturalist - Archaeologist
Ballona Institute
322 Culver Boulevard, Suite 317
Playa del Rey, CA 90293
Email: ballonainstitute@yahoo.com
Phone: (310) 821-9045

2004

Natural History of a Geography of Hope Via a Website
American Osprey


I have intended for a very long time to bring this classic piece of history and research from 107 years ago, back into print for the interested public to be able to read, learn, understand, our natural history of Los Angeles County. I think it can also be useful as a guide to understanding "genuine" restoration. Interestingly, Joseph Grinnell used the term "environment" one time at this early date of 1898, when few researchers, scientists, and naturalists used this term. The word "environment" was used in reference to a Black-chinned Sparrow found at 7000 feet in the San Gabriel Mountains.

Between 1892 (age 15) and 1898 (age 21), Joseph Grinnell conducted his field research while still a very young man. He resided with his parents in Pasadena, while simultaneously attending the local university-institute in Pasadena, California. He graduated from Throop Institute in 1897, now known as the California Institute of Technology (aka Cal. Tech.). He became a professor immediately upon graduation in 1897, all the while conducting intensive field research, correspondence, and interviews, for his monograph on birds of Los Angeles County. Proof that he resided in Pasadena during the 1890s can be found in the narrative of the Lawrence Goldfinch (species #199) because he makes a brief reference to this goldfinch nesting at his residence as follows: "... around my home place in Pasadena...", which is fairly good evidence. Another reference to Pasadena which indicates that he resided there between 1895 and 1897 is the following passage regarding the Red-breasted Sapsucker: "Often noticed, even along noisy city streets, in pepper trees, the sap of which this bird seems to particularly like. I have noted this woodpecker in Pasadena from October 9 ('95) to March 21 ('97)."

This comprehensive monograph is an amazing accomplishment for such a young man to complete in such an authoritative manner. From a perusal of his report, I estimate that he began observing and collecting birds in Los Angeles County in 1892. The reason for this time estimate is from the date of collected eggs of the Cactus Wren and Western Kingbird. The following year, in Simi Valley, he found a nest of a Cassin's Kingbird in July.

One consequence of a very careful analysis of the annotated bird catalogue is the discovery that Joseph Grinnell kept a field notebook during the 1890s. For example, under Black-chinned Hummingbird we find the following passage: "Extreme records from my note-book, April 3 ('95) and September 3 ('95)." And for the Cassin's Vireo, Grinnell tells us boldly that he keeps field notes with the following passage: "Extreme nesting dates from my field notes: A set five, incubation nearly complete, May 11 ('95); and a set of three, slightly incubated, June 26 ('93); both taken in the Arroyo Seco Canon north of Pasadena." He mentions his notes repeatedly throughout his annotated catalogue for various birds, including the Western Wood Pewee, Pacific Slope Flycatcher, Lazuli Bunting, among others. These "note-books" and "notes" are located in Berkeley at the University of California, in its Museum of Vertebrate Zoology. A research visit to this institution to peruse Grinnell's early notebooks would reward the researcher with uncovering a wealth of information regarding the early avifauna of the Pacific slope of Los Angeles County and Orange County, with a particular focus on Pasadena. The San Fernando Valley is discussed frequently as to some of its avifauna. There are many discussions of the rivers in the lowlands near Los Angeles and El Monte. Interestingly, he focuses a great deal on coastal regions from Santa Monica to Newport, including wetlands at Ballona, Wilmington, Bixby, and San Pedro. Both Channel Islands of Los Angeles County are discussed (Santa Catalina and San Clemente) and even Santa Barbara Island, a part of Ventura County is discussed. Also in Ventura County, the Simi Valley region is mentioned with regard to several birds, most notably the California Condor. Finally, the San Gabriel Mountains are discussed frequently, particularly above Pasadena, such as Mt. Wilson, Mt. Waterman, Barley Flats, and the west fork of the San Gabriel River.

One area of the San Gabriel Mountains that deserves special mention is the Tujunga Canon, particularly the mid-upper slopes from 3000 feet to 6000 feet elevation. Apparently, the Sage Sparrow nested in this limited locality, according to Joseph Grinnell. He stated that juvenile Sage Sparrow were seen at Pine Flats, and is this considered close to the watershed of the upper Tujunga River. I believe it is and this is why he discusses these two geographic locations together. Joseph Grinnell spent considerable time in two summers, 1895 and 1897, in the higher San Gabriel Mountains. For example, he observed the Chipping Sparrow in summer in a coniferous forest, at 8500 feet in elevation. This location, presumably is near Mt. Waterman. There are abundant records of birds he recorded nesting at Mt. Waterman (see chronological list below for the month of July, in 1895 and 1897, respectively). It is unclear at this time what Joseph Grinnell did in the summer of 1896, but perhaps this is when he did his journey and adventure to Alaska. In any regard, there are no records of obserations from May 17 through September 22, in 1896, a period of four consecutive months.

One of the very unique features of Joseph Grinnell was his ability to keep correspondence and conduct interviews with other naturalists, duck hunters, sportsmen, and scientists of his day. Grinnell includes discussion and notes from the 1880s with selected individuals. These birders and naturalists of the 1880s predate Grinnell's entry as a researcher of birds of Los Angeles County by several years. One particular naturalist of the 1880s that he communicated with is very special because he was California's first "genuine" ornithologist. His name was Dr. J.G. Cooper. It is clear that Joseph Grinnell interviewed and corresponded with Dr. Cooper sometime in the 1890s, about his observations of the 1880s. For example, we can detect this fact from the narrative regarding the Short-tailed Albatross. Grinnell wrote and I quote: "Dr. J.G. Cooper informs me that he has taken this species near Catalina Island." And then of course, Joe Grinnell is proud to announce that he found one himself, albeit a partially dead one in the surf at Long Beach. A second example of an association between Joe Grinnell and J.G. Cooper is regarding the Leach's Storm-Petrel where Joe Grinnell writes: "Dr. J.G. Cooper informs me that he has observed a white-rumped petrel out in the Channel near Catalina which he considers of this species."

Many interesting comments like this can be made about Joseph Grinnell with approximately 17 other "naturalists" he kept in touch with during the 1890s in Los Angeles County. Another example of the earlier period of the 1880s is regarding the Blue Grosbeak. Mr. Wicks reported to Grinnell a nest with four eggs collected near downtown Los Angeles on May 18, 1889. Yet another example of the 1880s is the California Towhee, collected by W.H. Wakely in Pasadena on February 13, 1886.

In some cases, he tells us where a birder/naturalist lives, as in the case of Edward Simmons regarding his observations of the "Dusky Poor-will." We learn that Edward Simmons resided at the base of mountains, north of Pasadena, probably in the Arroyo Seco. He collected two egg sets of Poorwill near his home in 1893 and 1895 and then corresponded with Joseph Grinnell regarding these nests.

Another example of his association with other naturalist birdwatchers is a comment that Joseph Grinnell made about Will Judson, regarding the Olive-sided Flycatcher. Grinnell states that this flycatcher nests in tall coniferous trees states that eggs are hard to secure. Grinnell then states that W.B. Judson obtained incubated eggs on Mt. Wilson on June 11, 1897. It would appear that Judson climbed high up in a pine or Big-cone Spruce in order to obtain the eggs of this Olive-sided Flycatcher. And I detect admiration and respect by Grinnell for Judson being willing to climb the conifers for eggs.

A distinctive association with another ornithologist who assisted with Grinnell's report and also inspired and gave him confidence as a young scientist, was the experienced ornithologist from Massachusetts, named William Brewster. William Brewster is also acknowledged in the beginning of Grinnell's monograph for assistance. There was letter correspondence between them and Joseph Grinnell sent specimens of some birds to him for specific identification, such as the Gray Flycatcher. It is interesting to note that this shows a linkage between the experts associated with Massachusetts and Harvard University and Joseph Grinnell. I believe that the various bird monographs for counties and regions of Massachusetts that were being completed during the late-19th Century were a model for Joseph Grinnell to imitate, when completing his own monograph of the birds of Los Angeles County, found namely along its coast, islands, meadowed plain, valleys, foothills, rivers, and mountains.

Yet another example of correspondence with an ornithologist expert from the eastern United States, is that of Robert Ridgway, with whom he discussed the difficulty of identification of various birds from Los Angeles County. One example is a subspecies of Hermit Thrush that Joseph Grinnell captured in Pasadena on January 23, 1897. Grinnell mailed the speciment to the eastern United States for identification. Ridgway identified it for Grinnell as an "Audubon's Hermit Thrush", or Turdus aonalaschka auduboni, in the scientific nomenclature of the 1890s.

Another group of subspecies with hybridization overtones that they discussed was the Red-winged Blackbird which hybridizes with the Tricolored Blackbird. One consequence are the appearance of Bicolored Blackbird individuals. These three blackbirds were discussed by Grinnell with Ridgway in regard to subspecies. Grinnell states: "Our blackbirds will require a good deal of study before they can be properly understood." Of related interest in blackbirds, Grinnell tells us that G.F. Morcom collected 35 sets of eggs of the Tricolored Blackbird near Compton, which appears to be a lament of sadness. Thirty-five sets of roughly five eggs each, would tally to 175 eggs. Could the mention by Grinnell in regard to 35 sets rather be a mere record of their sheer abundance in that marshy reed bed and willow riparian habitat found at Compton in the 1890s?

Interestingly, the Santa Monica Mountains are hardly mentioned in this report, probably due to their nature of private property, or perhaps little visited by naturalists. In any regard, I could find only two mentions of the Santa Monica Mountains. Grinnell reported that a White-throated Swift nest was found by H.G. Rising on June 16, 1897. And Grinnell also reports that the Purple Martin nested west of the San Fernando Valley in the oak region as reported to him by Ralph Arnold on April 1. I estimate that this location would be from Calabasas to Las Virgenes, where many large oaks exist.

An interesting consequence of this investigation into Joseph Grinnell's monograph has been the ability to compile a chronology of his explorations, including dates, locations, and birds seen. Interesting patterns have emerged. Grinnell made his own direct observations of birds for his monograph between 1892 and 1897, inclusively. His first year (1892) of observations is limited with very few records, but by 1895 and 1896, and particularly in 1897, Grinnell is intensively recording birds and keeping field notes. He is also interviewing many fellow birders, corresponding with birders, and inspecting their collections. However, in 1898, I can find only one avian record that was recorded and it is a contributed observation by his good friend, Harry Swarth, who reports a wintering Phainopepla in Los Angeles as being very unusual on January 31, 1898. Grinnell felt compelled to report this odd season of occurrence for the Phainopepla. This particular bird becomes the final avian record of the monograph, because in February, the monograph is coming close to being ready for the printer. Therefore, it makes perfect sense that no other observations are reported in 1898. During the latter part of February, Grinnell wrote his Introduction, including his acknowledgements, on February 21, 1898, only three weeks after hearing about the Phainopepla in Los Angeles, from Harry Swarth. And then, finally, a few weeks later, in March, this young man, with so much energy, purpose, and focus on birds, has a monograph on the birds of Los Angeles County and Pasadena, attached ot his name. The monograph officially becomes a published report of the Pasadena Academy of Sciences. There is no exact day of publication, it is simply stated as "March 1898" and so we are left to wonder if it was early March, mid-March, or late March? In any regard, sometime between one and two months after the final Phainopepla observation by Harry Swarth is recorded by Joseph Grinnell, the report is ready for the public to purchase.

Interestingly, in his report, there are a few times where Grinnell writes for the general public, rather than strictly to his birding and science audience, and the Phainopepla is one such bird. For example, the use of the term "popularity" in the last sentence of the Phainopepla narrative tells us this clearly, I believe. The whole sentence is appropriate to repeat here as follows: "This bird is popularly known as Black Mockingbird, and Black-crested Flycatcher." Another example where Grinnell tells us about a "popular name" is for the albatross, where tells the reader that "gooney" is often used by people, presumably fishermen. One more example is the Goldfinch, which Grinnell states are "popularly" known as "Wild Canaries."

Discoveries of his logistics are interesting to note, such as when he stays in one place for a period of time. For example, in 1897, he spent three consecutive days on Mt. Wilson, which is just above his home in Pasadena. We can state that it was a weekend, from Saturday to Monday, by the dates and birds he collected. He stayed on Mt. Wilson on the Halloween weekend from October 30 (saturday), October 31 (sunday), and November 1 (monday). Many more examples of discovery await the reader of his chronology of birding in the 1890s. Therefore, compiled here for the first time is a preliminary "geography" and "history" of his travels of Los Angeles County:

Los Angeles County History and Geography of Birds by Joseph Grinnell:
1892 to 1897
'92
Mar. 12, 1892 (sat.) ... Pasadena ... Roadrunner (nest with eggs)
Mar. 18, 1892 (fri.) ... Pasadena ... Cactus Wren (5 fresh eggs)
Jun. 28, 1892 (sat.) ... Pasadena ... Cactus Wren (4 fresh eggs in nest)
Jun. 28, 1892 (tue.) ... Pasadena ... Western Kingbird

'93
Mar. 18, 1893 (sat.) ... Pasadena ... American Kestrel (5 eggs)
May. 27, 1893 (sat.) ... Pasadena ... Lawrence's Goldfinch (5 eggs)
Jun. 03, 1893 (sat.) ... Pasadena ... Burrowing Owl (4 eggs fresh)
Jun. 12, 1893 (mon.) ... Pasadena ... Roadrunner (nest with eggs)
Jun. 23, 1893 (fri.) ... Arroyo Seco (north of Pasadena) ... Canyon Wren (6 fresh eggs)
Jun. 26, 1893 (mon.) ... Pasadena ... Yellow Warbler (3 fresh eggs)
Jun. 26, 1893 (mon.) ... Arroyo Seco Canon north of Pasadena ... Cassin's Vireo (3 eggs)
Jul. xx, 1893 (xxxx) ... Simi Valley ... Cassin's Kingbird

'94
Jan. 27, 1894 (xxxx) ... Mt. Wilson ... Townsend's Warbler (remain through mild winters)
May. 05, 1894 (sat.) ... Arroyo Seco Canon (North Pasadena) ... Canyon Wren (5 eggs advanced)
May. 12, 1894 (sat.) ... Pasadena vicinity ... Oak Titmouse (6 slightly incuabted eggs)
May 19, 1894 (sat.) ... Pasadena ... Nuttall's Woodpecker (3 slightly incubated eggs in willows)
June 28, 1894 (thu.) ... Pasadena vicintiy ... Costa's Hummingbird (two eggs)
Aug. 10, 1894 (fri.) ... Pasadena canon ... Spotted Owl (adult male in moulting plumage)
Aug. 21, 1894 (tue.) ... Pasadena vicinity ... Black-crowned Night Heron
Sep. 04, 1894 (sat.) ... Pasadena (assumed) ... Lesser Nighthawk (latest migrant)
Sep. 10, 1894 (fri.) ... Pasadena vicinity ... Say's Phoebe (winter resident)
Sep. 22, 1894 (wed.) ... Pasadena vicinity ... Black-crowned Night Heron
Sep. 22, 1894 (wed.) ... Pasadena (assumed) ... Yellow Warbler (latest migrant)
Sep. 30, 1894 (thu.) ... Pasadena vicinity ... Western Wood-Pewee (latest migrant)
Oct. 03, 1894 (wed.) ... Pasadena vicinity ... Dark-eyed Junco (early migrant)
Oct. 13, 1894 (sat.) ... Pasadena vicinity ... Vaux's Swift (last fall migrant)
Oct. 17, 1894 (wed.) ... LA County ... Semipalmated Plover
Oct. 20, 1894 (sat.) ... Pasadena? ... Violet-green Swallow
Dec. 08, 1894 (sat.) ... Pasadena ... Loggerhead Shrike (desert race straggler)

'95
Feb. 16, 1895 (sat ) ... El Monte ... Wilson's Warbler (adult male taken)
Feb. 16, 1895 (sat.) ... El Monte? ... Violet-green Swallow (early migrant)
Mar. 14, 1895 (thu.) ... Pasadena ... Say's Phoebe (winter residency ends, Pasadena vicinity)
Mar. 16, 1895 (sat.) ... Pasadena ... Bullock's Oriole (first arrival)
Mar. 19, 1895 (tue.) ... Pasadena ... Vesper Sparrow (latest spring migrant, Pasadena vicinity)
Mar. 23, 1895 (sat.) ... Pasadnea? ... Warbling Vireo (earliest migrant)
Mar. 23, 1895 (sat.) ... Pasadena? ... Black-throated Gray Warbler (earliest migrant
Apr. 02, 1895 (tue.) ... Pasadena? ... Yellow Warbler (earliest migrant)
Apr. 03, 1895 (wed.) ... El Monte ... American Pipit
Apr. 03, 1895 (wed.) ... Pasadena ... Black-chinned Hummingbird (early arrival)
Apr. 13, 1895 (sat.) ... Pasadena ... Dark-eyed Junco (early migrant)
Apr. 16, 1895 (tue.) ... Pasadena ... Northern Mockingbird (4 considerably incubated eggs)
Apr. 17, 1895 (wed.) ... Pasadena ... Horned Lark (2 nests of 3 eggs & 4 eggs)
Apr. 18, 1895 (thu.) ... Pasadena ... Western Wood-Pewee (earliest spring migrant, Pasadena vicinity)
Apr. 20, 1895 (sat.) ... Pasadena ... House Wren (8 fresh eggs)
Apr. 26, 1895 (fri.) ... Pasadena ... Hooded Oriole (nest of 4 eggs)
Apr. 29, 1895 (mon.) ... Pasadena ... Black-chinned Hummingbird (fresh eggs)
May. 03, 1895 (sat.?) ... Pasadena ... Northern Shoveler (in nearby ponds)
May. 04, 1895 (sun.) ... Pasadena ... Willow Flycatcher (early migrant)
May. 04, 1895 (sun.) ... Pasadena ... Blue-gray Gnatcactcher (nest with young)
May. 07, 1895 (wed.) ... Pasadena ... Bullock's Oriole (first set of five fresh eggs)
May. 11, 1895 (sun.) ... Pasadena ... Pacific Slope Flycatcher (4 eggs)
May. 11, 1895 (sun.) ... Arroyo Seco canon north of Pasadena ... Cassin's Vireo (5 eggs near hatching)
May. 17, 1895 (sat.) ... Pasadena? ... Cedar Waxwing (latest migrant)
May. 19, 1895 (mon.) ... Mountains north of Pasadena ... Black-throated Gray Warbler (4 young)
May. 19, 1895 (mon.) ... Mountains north of Pasadena ... Dark-eyed Junco (fledged young)
June 01, 1895 (sun.) ... Pasadena ... Steller's Jay (4 eggs, a few miles north of Pasadena)
June 05, 1895 (thu.) ... Pasadena ... Screech Owl (3 eggs-advanced near Pasadena in oaks)
June 22, 1895 (sun.) ... Mt. Wilson ... Purple Finch (pair, perhaps near nest)
June 22, 1895 (sun.) ... Mt. Wilson ... Yellow-rumped Warbler (full-grown juveniles)
June 29, 1895 (sun.) ... Pasadena vicinity ... Pacific Slope Flycatcher (4 eggs-late nesting)
July 01, 1895?(tue?) ... Pine Flats ... White-headed Woodpecker (full-fledged young)
July 01, 1895?(tue?) ... Pine Flats? ... Mountain Chickadee (full-grown young by July 1)
July 01?, 1895!(tue?) ... Pine Flats ... Orange-crowned Warbler (juveniles at 6000', early July)
July 08, 1895 (tue.) ... Pine Flats? ... Black-chinned Hummingbird (late nest)
July 10, 1895 (thu.) ... Barley Flats ... Spotted Towhee (3 fresh eggs at 5000 feet)
July 15, 1895?(tue?) ... Pine Flats ... Mountain Quail (young taken)
July 20, 1895 (sun.) ... Waterman Mountain ... Rock Wren (nearly fledged young near summit 8500')
July xx, 1895 (xxx) ... Mt. Waterman ... Warbling Vireo (common)
July xx, 1895 (xxx) ... Mt. Waterman ... Brown Creeper (juveniles in mid-July at 8500')
Aug. 10, 1895 (sat.) ... Pasadena ... Bullock's Oriole (latest seen)
Aug. 29, 1895 (thu.) ... South Pasadena ... American Pipit
Sep. 01, 1895 (sun.) ... Pasadena ... Pinyon Jay (in eucalyptus in downtown Pasadena)
Sep. 03, 1895 (tue.) ... Pasadena ... Vaux's Swift (first fall migrant, Pasadena vicinity)
Sep. 03, 1895 (tue.) ... Pasadena ... Black-chinned Hummingbird (late bird)
Sep. 07, 1895 (sat.) ... Long Beach ... Semipalmated Plover
Sep. 07, 1895 (sat.) ... Long Beach ... Leach's Storm-Petrel
Sep. 07, 1895 (sat.) ... Long Beach ... Cliff Swallow
Sep. 14, 1895 (sat.) ... Pasadena oaks? ... Ash-throated Flycatcher (latest fall migrant)
Sep. 15, 1895 (sun.) ... Pasadena vicinity ... White-crowned Sparrow (earliest arrival)
Sep. 16, 1895 (mon.) ... Pasadena vicinity ... Vesper Sparrow (earliest fall migant)
Sep. 21, 1895 (sat.) ... Pasadena ... Pinyon Jay (last of 20 days seen in Pasadena)
Oct. 02, 1895 (wed.) ... Pasadena? ... Warbling Vireo (latest migrant)
Oct. 02, 1895 (wed.) ... Pasadena? ... Cassin's Vireo (latest migrant)
Oct. 25, 1895 (fri.) ... Pasadena ... Lesser Goldfinch (3 egg nest)
Dec. 21, 1895 (sat.) ... Pasadena ... Willow American Goldfinch (type-male in Auk)
Dec. 26, 1895 (thu.) ... Pasadena vicinity ... Red-naped Sapsucker
Dec. 26, 1895 (thu.) ... Bixby ... Canada Goose (good-sized flocks seen, several obtained)

'96
Feb. 20, 1896 (fri.) ... Pasadena? ... Rufous Hummingbird (migration)
Feb. 29, 1896 (sun.) ... Pasadena ... Island Orange-crowned Warbler (latest taken)
Mar. 04, 1896 (tue.) ... Pasadena ... Song Sparrow (3 eggs)
Mar. 07, 1896 (fri.) ... Foothills north of Pasadena ... Hutton's Vireo (3 fresh eggs)
Mar. 20, 1896 (thu.) ... Pasadena ... California Towhee (brood nearly fledged)
Mar. 21, 1896 (fri.) ... Pasadena ... Costa's Hummingbird (earliest migrant)
Mar. 26, 1896 (wed.) ... Pasadena? ... Least Bell's Vireo (earliest migrant)
Mar. 27, 1896 (thu.) ... Pasadena ... Barn Swallow (earliest migrant)
Mar. 30, 1896 (sun.) ... Pasadena ... Pacific Slope Flycatcher (early migrant)
Mar. 30, 1896 (sun.) ... Pasadena ... Black-headed Grosbeack (earliest migrant)
Mar. 31, 1896 (sun.) ... Pasadena ... Brewer's Sparrow (spring migrant)
Apr. 04, 1896 (sat.) ... Pasadena ... MacGillivray's Warbler (earliest migrant; common 2nd week April)
Apr. 04, 1896 (sat.) ... Pasadena ... Nashville Warbler (earliest spring record)
Apr. 04, 1896 (sat.) ... Pasadena ... Orange-crowned Warbler (one egg in nest)
Apr. 04, 1896 (sat.) ... Pasadena ... Cassin's Vireo (earliet migrant)
Apr. 04, 1896 (sat.) ... Pasadena? ... Lazuli Bunting (earliest migrant)
Apr. 13, 1896 (mon.) ... Pasadena ... Oak Titmouse (9 fresh eggs)
Apr. 15, 1896 (wed.) ... Pasadena ... Ruby-crowned Kinglet (observed in Pasadena vicinity)
Apr. 22, 1896 (wed.) ... Pasadena ... Vaux's Swift (first spring migrant in Pasadena vicinity)
Apr. 22, 1896 (wed.) ... Pasadena ... Hermit Warbler (earliest migrant in Pasadena vicinity)
Apr. 22, 1896 (wed.) ... Pasadena ... Townsend's Warbler (earliest migrant)
Apr. 24, 1896 (fri.) ... Pasadena ... Olive-sided Flycatcher (earliest record, Pasadena vicinity)
Apr. 25, 1896 (sat.) ... Pasadena ... Blue Grosbeak (earliest migrant)
May. 02, 1896 (sat.) ... Pasadena ... Vaux's Swift (last spring migrant, Pasadena vicinity)
May. 03, 1896 (sun.) ... Pasadena ... White-crowned Sparrow (specimens shot)
May. 06, 1896 (wed.) ... Mt. Wilson vicinity ... Townsend's Solitaire
May. 09, 1896 (sat.) ... Pasadena vicinity? ... Golden-crowned Sparrow
May. 09, 1896 (sat.) ... Pasadena vicinity? ... Dwarf Hermit Thrush
May. 09, 1896 (sat.) ... Mt. Wilson ... Red-breasted Nuthatch (late date)
May. 13, 1896 (wed.) ... Pasadena ... Townsend's Warbler (latest spring migrant)
May. 17, 1896 (sun.) ... Pasadena ... Hermit Warbler (latest migrant in Pasadena vicinity)
Sep. 22, 1896 (tue.) ... Pasadena? ... Black-headed Grosbeack (latest migrant)
Sep. 24, 1896 (thu.) ... Pasadena ... Ruby-crowned Kinglet (observed in Pasadena vicinity)
Sep. 26, 1896 (sat.) ... Pasadena ... Olive-sided Flycatcher (latest fall migrant)
Sep. 26, 1896 (sat.) ... Pasadena ... Willow Flycatcher (late migrant)
Sep. 26, 1896 (sat.) ... Pasadena ... Costa's Hummingbird (latest migrant)
Sept 26, 1896 (sat.) ... Pasadena vicinity? ... Golden-crowned Sparrow
Oct. 10, 1896 (sat.) ... Pasadena in mountains few miles north ... Steller's Jay (adult female albino)
Oct. 10, 1896 (sat.) ... Pasadena ... Dwarf Hermit Thrush (Native Holly berry feeding in foothills)
Oct. 10, 1896 (sat.) ... Pasadena vicintiy ... Pacific Flycatcher (late migrant)
Oct. 10, 1896 (sat.) ... Pasadena? ... Fox Sparrow (migrant)
Oct. 27, 1896 (tue.) ... Mt. Wilson/Pasadena? ... Common Nighthawk (male taken in evening)
Oct. 27, 1896 (tue.) ... Pasadena ... Purple Finch (winter resident, see April 29, 1897)
Oct. 31, 1896 (sat.) ... Mt. Wilson fir forests ... Golden-crowned Kinglet (birds secured)
Nov. 07, 1896 (sat.) ... El Monte ... Short-eared Owl (five flushed from alfalfa field)
Nov. 14, 1896 (sat.) ... Pasadena vicinity ... Dark-eyed Junco (female migrant)
Nov. 25, 1896 (wed.) ... Pasadena? ... Varied Thrush (first arrival,male)
Dec. 04, 1896 (fri.) ... Long Beach ... Ring-billed Gull
Dec. 12, 1896 (sat.) ... Mt. Wilson ... Townsend's Warbler (many remain in mild winters)

'97
Jan. 23, 1897 (sat.) ... Pasadena vicinity ... "Audubon's" Hermit Thrush (adult male i.d. by Ridgway)
Jan. 30, 1897 (sat.) ... San Pedro ... Bonaparte's Gull (single bird)
Feb. 13, 1897 (sat.) ... Pasadena vicinity ... Red-naped Sapsucker
Mar. 06, 1897 (sat.) ... Pasadena ... Orange-crowned Warbler (earliest migrant)
Mar. 12, 1897 (fri.) ... El Monte ... Northern Rough-winged Swallow (early migrant)
Mar. 15, 1897 (mon.) ... Pasadena ... Hooded Oriole (earliest spring migrant)
Mar. 20, 1897 (sat.) ... El Monte ... Pine Siskin (late migrant)
Mar. 21, 1897 (sun.) ... Pasadena ... Red-breasted Sapsucker (downtown noisy streets in Pepper trees
Mar. 25, 1897 (thu.) ... Pasadena vicinity ... Western Scrub Jay (early nest with 2/3 grown young)
Mar. 26, 1897 (fri.) ... San Pedro Harbor ... departure to San Clemente Island
Mar. 27, 1897 (sat.) ... San Clemente Island (on island)
Apr. 04, 1897 (sun.) ... San Clemente Island (on island)
Apr. 10, 1897 (sat.) ... Pasadena? ... Varied Thrush (latest in spring, female)
Apr. 10, 1897 (sat.) ... Arroyo Seco at Pasadena ... Black-throated Sparrow (male, only record)
Apr. 10, 1897 (sat.) ... Pasadena vicinity ... Wrentit (nest-four eggs)
Apr. 10, 1897 (sat.) ... Pasadena? ... Fox Sparrow (late spring migrant)
Apr. 17, 1897 (sat.) ... Pasadena neighborhood ... American Robin (berry feeding in pepper trees)
Apr. 17, 1897 (sat.) ... Pasadena ... Brewer's Sparrow (spring migrant)
Apr. 17, 1897 (sat.) ... Pasadena? ... Fox Sparrow (migrant - #227)
Apr. 21, 1897 (wed.) ... Pasadena vicinity ... Lesser Nighthawk (two fresh eggs)
Apr. 21, 1897 (wed.) ... Pasadena vicinity ... Costa's Hummingbird (two fresh eggs)
Apr. 27, 1897 tue.) ... Pasadena ... Purple Finch (resident since Oct.27, 1896)
May. 04, 1897 (tue.) ... Pasadena vicintiy ... Gray Flycatcher (migrant)
May. 11, 1897 (tue.) ... San Pedro Harbor ... Bonarparte's Gull (1 pair)
May. 11, 1897 (tue.) ... San Pedro Harbor ... Heermann's Gull
May. 12, 1897 (wed.) ... At sea sailing out to Channel Islands
May. 13, 1897 (thu.) ... Santa Barbara Island ... Xantus Murrelet
May. 15, 1897 (sat.) ... Santa Barbara Island ... Pigeon Guillemot
May. 16, 1897 (sun.) ... Santa Barbara Island ... Cassin's Auklet
May. 18, 1897 (tue.) ... Santa Barbara Island ... Western Gull (nests with 3 eggs)
May. 18, 1897 (tue.) ... At sea sailing between Channel Islands
May. 19, 1897 (wed.) ... San Nicolas Island ... first day on island
May. 20, 1897 (thu.) ... San Nicolas Island ... Western Wood Pewee
May. 23, 1897 (sun.) ... San Nicolas Island ... Western Wood Pewee
May. 24, 1897 (mon.) ... San Nicolas Island ... Horned Lark (juveniles)
May. 25, 1897 (tue.) ... San Nicolas Island ... House Finch (nest)
May. 26, 1897 (wed.) ... San Nicolas Island ... last day on island
May. 27, 1897 (thu.) ... At sea sailing between Channel Islands
May. 28, 1897 (fri.) ... San Clemente Island ... first day on island
Jun. 07, 1897 (mon.) ... San Clemente Island ... last day on island
Jun. 08, 1897 (tue.) ... At sea sailing back to mainland California
Jun. 09, 1897 (wed.) ... San Pedro Harbor ...
June 19, 1897 (sat.) ... Pasadena vicinity ... Sage Sparrow (full-grown young)
June 25, 1897 (fri.) ... Pasadena vicinity ... Wrentit (lates set of 4 eggs considerably incubated)
July 01, 1897?(thu?) ... Pine Flats ... White-headed Woodpecker (full-fledged young)
July 01, 1897? (thu?) ... Pine Flats? ... Mountain Chickadee (full-grown young by July 1)
July 02, 1897 (fri.) ... Pine Flats ... Warbling Vireo (three fresh eggs at 6000 feet)
July 02, 1897 (fri.) ... Pine Flats ... Pygmy Nuthatch (full-grown juveniles taken)
July 03, 1897 (sat.) ... Pine Flats ... "Nevada" Sage Sparrow (juveniles)
July 03, 1897 (sat.) ... Pine Flats ... Black-chinned Sparrow (juveniles obtained; up to 7000 feet)
July 03, 1897 (sat.) ... Pine Flats ... Brewer's Sparrow (brushy slopes of Pine Flats & Mt. Waterman).
July 10, 1897 (sat.) ... Mt. Waterman ... Green-tailed Towhee (numerous)
July 10, 1897 (sat.) ... Mt. Waterman ... Fox Sparrow ("haunts" willows & ferns at 7000')
July 11, 1897 (sun.) ... Mt. Waterman ... Gray Flycatcher (fledged young at 7500-8500')
July 14, 1897 (wed.) ... Mt. Waterman ... Ruby-crowned Kinglet (female adult at 8500')
July 14, 1897 (wed.) ... Mt. Waterman ... Pine Siskin (nesting at 7000' to 8500')
July 14, 1897 (wed.) ... Mt. Waterman ... Calliope Hummingbird (juveniles) at 8500'
July 14, 1897 (wed.) ... Mt. Waterman ... Red-tailed Hawk (adult & young at 8500')
July 15, 1897 (thu.) ... Mt. Waterman ... White-breasted Nuthatch (juveniles taken)
July xx, 1897 (xxx) ... Mt. Waterman ... Warbling Vireo (common)
July xx, 1897 (xxx) ... Mt. Waterman ... Brown Creeper (juveniles in mid-July at 8500')
July xx, 1897 (xxx) ... Mt. Waterman ... Clark's Nutcracker (numerous, juveniles secured)
July xx, 1897?(xxx) ... Mt. Waterman ... Cassin's Finch (in pine forests)
Aug. 31, 1897 (tue.) ... San Pedro ... Spotted Sandpiper
Sep. 01, 1897 (wed.) ... San Pedro ... Heermann's Gull
Sep. 01, 1897 (wed.) ... San Pedro ... Forster's Tern (several taken)
Sep. 03, 1897 (fri.) ... San Pedro ... Willet (several taken)
Sep. 08, 1897 (wed.) ... Pasadena? ... Least Bell's Vireo (latest migrant)
Sep. 08, 1897 (wed.) ... Pasadena ... Orange-crowned Warbler (last seen)
Sep. 10, 1897 (fri.) ... Pasadena ... Black-chinned Sparrow (latest fall migrant)
Sep. 14, 1897 (tue.) ... Pasadena vicinity ... Vesper Sparrow (earliest fall migrant)
Sep. 14, 1897 (tue.) ... Pasadena? ... Cedar Waxwing (earliest fall migrant)
Sep. 17, 1897 (fri.) ... Pasadena? ... Lazuli Bunting (late migrant)
Sep. 18, 1897 (sat.) ... Pasadena ... Hooded Oriole (latest fall migrant)
Sep. 27, 1897 (mon.) ... Arroyo Seco Canon at Pasadena ... Tennessee Warbler (female shot)
Oct. 05, 1897 (tue.) ... Pasadena neighborhood ... American Robin (early migrant feeding on berries in pepper trees
Oct. 05, 1897 (tue.) ... Pasadena? ... Rufous Hummingbird (migrant)
Oct. 23, 1897 (sat.) ... Arroyo Seco or Mt. Wilson ... Winter Wren
Oct. 30, 1897 (sat.) ... Mt. Wilson ... Townsend's Solitaire in vicinity of mountain
Oct. 30, 1897 (sat.) ... Mt. Wilson ... Golden-crowned Kinglet (observed in fir forests)
Oct. 30, 1897 (sat.) ... Mt. Wilson? ... Hammond's Flycatcher (specimen taken)
Oct. 31, 1897 (sun.) ... Mt. Wilson ... Mountain Bluebird (Grinnell saw a small flock)
Oct. 31, 1897 (sun.) ... Mt. Wilson ... Williamson's Sapsucker (Grinnell saw a dozen)
Oct. 31, 1897 (Sun.) ... Mt. Wilson ... Fox Sparrow (fall migrant)
Nov. 01, 1897 (mon.) ... Mt. Wilson ... Williamson's Sapsucker (one dozen seen)
Dec. 24, 1897 (fri.) ... Catalina Island ... Glaucous-winged Gull
Dec. 31. 1897 (fri.) ... Catalina Island ...
Jul. xx. 189x (???) ... Long Beach ... Long-billed Curlew

Since Joseph Grinnell lived in Pasadena, it is not unexpected that many observations are for the Pasadena area. In addition, he recorded other notes that help us to reconstruct the environment around Pasadena during the 1890s. For example, regarding the Dunlin, Joseph Grinnell quotes a gentleman, named W.H. Wakeley, that collected specimens "in the bright summer plumage, taken at a pond near Pasadena early in May. Thus, we know that ponds existed around Pasadena and that migratory sandpipers, such as the Dunlin, visited these ponds. For another example, regarding the Red Phalarope, Joseph Grinnell quotes another genetleman, named Walter Richardson, that collected this bird "in the fall on a reservoir near Pasadena." Now we know that there are ponds in Spring and reservoirs in Autumn, which hold water for migratory birds.

It is interesting to note also that Joseph Grinnell occasionally refers to exotic vegetation, whether it be the Pepper Tree or an Orange Grove, in association with birds found during migration because some of these human-created landscapes have available food. For example, he discusses the orange blossoms in spring migration for the Rufous Hummingbird. The Pepper Tree's berries are discussed as useful in migration for the Cedar Waxwing and for "thrushes" such as the Robin. The narrative text of the Anna's Hummingbird is very rich in detail of the associaton of vegetation and landscaping in Los Angeles and how this "Anna's Hummer" follows the flowers, from Eucalyptus that flower in January, to the orange orchard's blosooms in March-April. And the discussion of going to the sunflowers and "tarplants" in August and September. These are ecological gems of writing by Joseph Grinnell that tell us a great deal about the natural history of Los Angeles in the 1890s.

Another example of an association of horticultural landscaping is in reference to the Hooded Oriole, which Joseph Grinnell states is common in gardens and orchards in summer, in the Pasadena region. Interestingly, however, he also shows us that this oriole is found in natural areas of the mountains, such as in sycamore trees up to 4000 feet in elevation.

Grinnell's report also has many aspects that are useful to understanding the history of Los Angeles County, in relation to how some birds have fared better than others with the coming of the farms and ranches in the late 19th Century. For example, the Black Phoebe is shown to be an early associate of humans around barns and stockyards. Grinnell's quote is useful to explain the Black Phoebe ecology as follows: "Usually to be found near water, and especially about barns and stockyards." It is logical that water troughs were situated near barns and stockyards for livestock to drink water and that this also attracted the Black Phoebe. We know that the Black Phoebe constructs a mud nest, similar to some swallows, and thus needs clay and water for building a nest on a barn's roof or wall. Even today, the Black Phoebe is still found in our urbanized areas, whether it be around homes or in parks. For example, in Alondra Park, which has an artificial lake and is situated along the Dominguez Creek storm channel, the resident population of Black Phoebe is quite high. The bathroom's outside walls and roof overhang provide an ideal nesting structure for attachment of the phoebe nest. An abundance of water and clay are found at the park, so there is no shortage of material for nest construction.

For at least a few other native birds, particularly swallows, human-built structures are useful for nesting by the 1890s. This bird is the Cliff Swallow and Joseph Grinnell states in a passage as follows: "Nests mostly on buildings, from May to July." Another example is the Northern Rough-winged Swallow because Joseph Grinnell writes that Mr. Gaylord found it nesting: "... in a hole in a cement wall in the Arroyo Seco." Interestingly, in the previous sentence Grinnell discuesses that a few of these swallows nest in natural conditions: "A few pair remain to breed along water courses with steep sandy banks." Thus we see that Grinnell wants to remind us with an emphasis that a particular bird uses native habitat as well as human-built structures such as a cement wall. It is important to remember that this cement wall is still along stream drainage, in this case, the Arroyo Seco, so this type of riparian-stream-side habitat is important, even if it is modified by man.

The early research by Joseph Grinnell is not only important as a historical document to the development of the science of ornithology in California, but is today essential and vital to doing "genuine" ecological restoration of remnant habitats on the "Pacific Slopes" of Los Angeles County. The data and some of the conclusions drawn by Joseph Grinnell are useful beyond the boundaries of present day Los Angeles County. For example, the data can be used for "genuine" restoration in the adjoining counties of Ventura and Orange Counties. His data can be useful for genuine restoration of the Ballona salt marshes in Playa del Rey. His report can be used for genuine restoraiton of the Los Angeles Airport sand dunes and prairie meadows. His report can be a useful guide for restoraiton of the Los Angeles River, San Gabriel River, Santa Ana River, Dominguez Creek, Ballona Creek, Wintersburg Creek, and Newport Bay.

Another good example for conducting genuine historical ecological restoration from Joseph Grinnell's report is the Yellow-billed Cuckoo (#138 of Grinnell's list). Although he did not record his own dates of observation he records the collection of bird eggs of an earlier birdwatcher, M.L. Wicks, who found this endangered bird at Ballona Creek in 1889. A careful assessment of the quotation by Joseph Grinnell as "a few miles east of Santa Monica, June 7, '89" must refer to the "willow regions of the lowlands" along Ballona Creek. It may likely refer to the region of Mesmer on Ballona Creek, because a botanist, LeRoy Abrams, found willows here between 1901 and 1903.

In 2005, the "Pacific Slopes" of Los Angeles County are now mostly developed with expensive homes and businesses. However, in the 1890s, Los Angeles County's "Pacific Slopes" were mostly natural and rural landscapes. It is fortunate indeed, that Joseph Grinnell studied these birds during the 1890s and that the Pasadena Academy of Sciences supported his research. Grinnell's report is invaluable for understanding geography, history, and genuine restoration ecology.

WILLOW REGIONS OF THE LOWLANDS
There is a recurring theme in Grinnell's report regarding the birds found amongst "Willow" trees. It is abundantly clear from a perusal of his report that there is an abundance of nesting by females in the willows. The willow he is referring to is the Arroyo Willow. These Arroyo Willows are today quite rare and the habitat that Grinnell referred to as the "willow regions of the lowlands" is nearly obliterated in Los Angeles County along its various rivers. For example, the Los Angeles River, Arroyo Seco, and Ballona Creek have virtually no willows as these rivers pass through the City of Los Angeles. We need to read the bird narratives in Grinnell's report carefully to grasp the severity of the loss of willow trees in river lowlands. I have compiled a list of 20 birds discussed by Grinnell with reference to "willow regions" in chronological order, so that the interested reader can go to the narrative portions of Grinnell's report to ascertain for yourself the importance of willow trees to a great many birds:
119. Red-shouldered Hawk;
130. Long-eared Owl;
138. Yellow-billed Cuckoo;
140. Hairy Woodpecker;
141. Downy Woodpecker;
142. Nuttall's Woodpecker;
149. Northern "Red-shafted" Flicker;
172. Willow Flycatcher;
185. Red-winged Blackbird;
198. American "Willow" Goldfinch;
201. Pine Siskin;
203. Vesper Sparrow;
233. Black-headed Grosbeak;
241. Tree Swallow (especially in vicinity of ponds and marshes);
251. Hutton's Vireo;
252. Least Bell's Vireo;
258. Yellow Warbler;
266. Common Yellowthroat;
267. Yellow-breasted Chat;
268. Wilson's Warbler;
294. Swainson's Thrush;
299. Western Bluebird.
No females of these 21 birds nest on the Los Angeles River near downtown Los Angeles, as they did about 100 years ago. A program to plant a million Willow trees on the Los Angeles River, Arroyo Seco, and Ballona Creek is urgently needed. Interesting, the new mayor for Los Angeles, Antonio Villaraigosa, in 2005, has pledged to plant a million trees. However, the new mayor has not committed to what kind of trees, as yet. The native-indigenous "Arroyo Willow" tree would be the tree of choice, not only for the beautiful song birds that would benefit, but also because Arroyo Willows grow rapidly and the mayor and the residents would see the results of their growth during his term in office. The focus needs to be on the Arroyo Willow, not sycamores, not cottonwoods, not oaks, and not alders. An additonal tree that needs to be planted on the slopes above the willows is the native "Southern California Walnut Tree."

Fortunately, a growing cultural movement has appeared that is interested in preserving and restoring natural ecosystems across the USA, and also across the earth. In California and in Los Angeles, the movement is growing too. As an example, even though so much marsh-wetlands, prairie-meadows, sand-dune, and "willow lowlands" habitat has been lost, a societal movement to save the last remnants of these ecosystem parklands is occurring. In Los Angeles County, several cities, including the City of Los Angeles, are beginning to connect habitats together, whether it be coastal strand ecosystems or the Los Angeles River. In both instances, a draft conservation scientific plan has been assembled. In essence, there is a renaissance occurring for the restoration of a natural Los Angeles.

TRUE GENUINE RESTORATION
Perhaps the most important and significant feature of the research by Joseph Grinnell is that it can be used to guide us in the direction of "true" and "genuine" restoration. Currently, throughout the restoration efforts of southern California, nearly every effort has been a failure due to using the "wrong" native plants. These mistakes are supported naively and ignorantly by state agencies with government funding. The reasons are complex but involve both politics by major corporations and landscape architects. These entities lack scientific understanding and awareness of what genuine native plants are for coastal southern California.

Furthermore, and this relates to birds as well, there needs to be a linkage of plants to restoration of the fauna, not the the mere hope that animals will return if native plants are used. In nearly every situation, there will need to be a "planting" of the animals as well. Zoologists and conservation biologists actually refer to the restoration of animals as translocation, re-introduction, recovery, but it is actually also restoration. And if this kind of animal restoration is not completed, no project can be termed genuine restoration. For example, most parts of the Pacific Slope of Los Angeles County has lost its resident covey of California Quail. We need to restore the California throughout the lowlands of Los Angeles County.

About 14 years after this study by Joseph Grinnell, a complementary investigation by another ornithologist, George Willett was completed in 1912, and then revised in 1933. George Willett reported the status of our avifauna from a much wider geographic perspective, namely all of southern California, from San Diego to Santa Barbara counties. These two reports of 1912 and 1933, when combined with the Grinnell report of 1898, give us a nice complementary timeline, which is very rich for the avian ecology researcher. And the 1944 monograph by Joseph Grinnell and Alden Miller even adds to the timeline and thus gives us another baseline of information from which to understand avian ecology and to more accurately do avian restoration analysis.

Theses baseline avian reports by Grinnell and Willet focused on birds naturally, but independently, similar investigations on plants, by LeRoy Abrams, Samuel Parish, and Anstruther Davidson, were also giving us complementary analysis of the flora. These studies of the flora when combined with the avifaunal ecology reports provide us with a rich research base from which to do an extremely comprehensive ecological restoration analysis for the Pacific slopes of Los Angeles County and Orange County. Fortunately, there were studies done in the early years of the 20th Century by zoologists and naturalists that studied other various groups of organisms, such as lichens by Herman Hasse in his 1914 report, and various faunal elements, including the mammalian fauna, herpetofauna, ichthyofauna, and entomofauna.

Hopefully, the last remaining remnants of natural Los Angeles County can be saved and then restored in a genuine way. As an example, take the sand dunes of the coast. These last remnant ecosystems stretch from Santa Monica to Venice to Playa del Rey to El Segundo to Manhattan Beach to Hermosa Beach to Redondo Beach to Torrance. This is a true "geography of hope." The real difficulty and challenge will be to do truly "GENUINE" restoration. Documents such as the study by Joseph Grinnell in 1898, 107 years ago, will be vitally important as a source document for "GENUINE" restoration. It is for this reason that I have brought this article back-into-print in association with the Ballona Institute. The Ballona Institute has already conducted numerous field investigations and even some actual ecological restoration to recover the "GENUINE" flora and fauna of the "Pacific Slopes" of Los Angeles County.

In closing this essay on Joseph Grinnell, perhaps the most pleasing discovery was a statement by him of environmental history if we consider that he wrote this passage 108 years ago about the effects of putting cement around our waters, whether it be ponds, reservoirs, or rivers. His quote is simple and to the point regarding the disappearnce of the Common Loon from a water body in Pasadena during the 1890s. The passage grips me today about our sense of progress and makes me want to reform Joel Hedgepeth's 1950s organization called the "Society for the Prevention of Progress." Here is what Joseph Grinnell wrote and note it is a little bit of history too, as it discusses a watermaster for the resevoir, still called a zanquero at that time:
For several years, before the reservoirs in North Pasadena were cemented, Loons were of regular occurrence, subsisting on the fish which were then abundant in the reservoirs. One bird in particular became very tame and was regularly fed by the "zanquero" until it disappeared in the spring.
Joseph Grinnell also noted that the Common Loon was common in the 1890s, but 100 years later in the 1990s, and even now in 2006, the Common Loon is not common in Los Angeles County inland waters. Our state government will not put it on the endangered species list in California because it is not rare enough yet. Ask any knowledgeable ornithologist or knowledgeable bird watcher and they will tell you it is not common on inland waters in mid-winter in Los Angeles County. And yet, as reported by Joseph Grinnell approximately 108 years ago, and I reiterate, it is common, but, but I will let Joseph Grinnell tell you about the status of the Common Loon in Los Angeles County in 1898: "Tolerably common along the coast as well as inland on fresh water ponds in mid-winter."

In closing this Afterword and essay on the importance of Joseph Grinnell's monograph, I contemplate the changes that have occurred between 1890s and today, in 2006. I want to dwell upon Los Angeles County, today, as a sanctuary, free from hunters of birds. No one can shoot a gun anywhere in coastal and urban Los Angeles County, at birds, and so they are safe, in this regard. It is an interesting twist of fate, that birds, in this one small measure are fully protected from gunners in this County, except perhaps, in the San Gabriel Mountains, where some hunting of birds is still allowed unfortunately.

Of course, our human population has grown in Los Angeles to roughgly 10 million people. And there are the freeways, skyscrapers, air pollution, massive development, traffic, and so much more, which has led to a loss of habitat and a consequent decline of birds today, as compared to Grinnell's era of the 1890s. However, there are rays of hope, and a very good thing in Los Angeles, is that guns, gunners, and hunters are no longer found in Los Angeles County on the Pacific slopes. In the 1890s, Grinnell reported several times about the gunners and people killing birds. Today it is considered very bad and it is illegal to shoot and to kill birds in Los Angeles, if only becaue it is illegal to shoot a gun in our urban environment of Los Angeles, due to safety of human life. And this is how native wild birds in Los Angeles benefit coincidentally.

Now, I would like to present a few examples of the writings of Joseph Grinnell, from his 1898 monograph, that are related to guns, hunters, and gunners. For example, Grinnell wrote, in regard to the American Widgeon, the following quote: "They generally spend the day, in common with many other species of ducks, several miles out at sea, resting on the water in beds of acres in extent. Here they are safe from the gunner during the day, and only after nightfall they go inland, dispersing over alfalfa and grain fields to feed ... Known generally among hunters as 'widgeon.' "

This passage by Grinnell shows clearly the fear of waterfowl, namely ducks, from guns, and how they meticuously avoided the gunner in the 1890s. Today, in 2006, with our numerous ponds, artificial lakes, rivers, and coastal wetlands, American Widgeon are again numerous, and none of them need to be afraid of being harassed or gunned, while in urban Los Angeles County.

Instead, we feed them, and so the watery landscapes of Los Angeles are now a kind of sanctuary for birds. Of course, on migration, when the widgeon and other waterfow have to depart Los Angeles, or before they arrive in Los Angeles to spend the winter, they have to run a gauntlet of gunners in our rural northern counties and neighboring states, north of California. And, of course, hunting of ducks and geese also occurs voraciously in Canada. Yet, once these birds arrive in urban Los Angeles County, they are safe for several months during the fall, winter, and early spring seasons.

With regard to hunters and gunners in Los Angeles in the 1890s, we need only read what Joseph Grinnell wrote regarding the Snow Goose, as follows: "Quite numerous during winter and spring on the fresh water marsh lands. [Alexander] Shields states that this is the goose usually displayed in Los Angeles game markets, being most easily secured by the pot-hunters. Today, in 2006, it is a rare event when the Snow Goose occurs in Los Angeles. They have never recovered from this excessive hunting that occurred in the 1890s and into the early 20th Century. However, there is a ray of hope, alas, five Snow Goose appeared in Los Angeles County, at Malibu Lagoon and its associated grassland meadows. These five geese have been here for a few months now from 2005 into 2006. And there is talk about saving remaining grasslands, meadows, and prairies in Los Angeles. There is also discussion about restoring some grasslands, meadows, and prairies, adjacent to coastal wetlands, for birds, such as the Snow Goose. Perhaps, in future years, we will see more Snow Goose in Los Angeles County. The proper wildlife management techniques of large grassy meadows of a prairie-nature, next to watery landscapes such as lagoons and lakes, can attract them. Perhaps decoys, but not placed in the water by hunters, but rather birders and environmental activists, would attract more Snow Goose and other waterfowl to our urban wetlands and prairies?

In reference to the Canada Goose, a success story has already occurred between 1898 and 2006. Grinnell reported that the Canada Goose had become less abundant from former years. However, today, Canada Goose occur by the hundreds in a few parts of Los Angeles County, namely in the San Fernando Valley region,but why not attract them to our coastal wetlands of Los Angeles County?

Finally, there is the Mountain Plover, a delicate and beautiful shorebird, that is quickly sliding toward extinction in the United States, and in this present millenium. And politics will not allow it to be placed on an endangered species list. Joseph Grinnell wrote that delicate plover was common in Los Angeles County in the 1890s, but alas, it was slaughtered by hunters, and today it is now seldom recorded in this County. Of course, loss of habitat compounds the condition of the Mountain Plover. This Plover prefers meadows, prairies, and grasslands with abundant bare ground, in order to spend the winter here in coastal Los Angeles County. Joseph Grinnell wrote the following one sentence statement about the 1890s plight of the Mountain Plover: "At times large numbers are offered in the Los Angeles Game markets."

FOOTNOTES

Footnote 1: Scientific names and the authors of the bird taxonomy as listed by Joseph Grinnell are not included here so that the list will be user-friendly to the lay-public. For the same reason, the most current American Ornithologists Union (AOU) common-vernacular accepted name is used rather than the historical name used in the 1890s.

Footnote 2: In a very few places, Joseph Grinnel made a typographical error, or perhaps it happend at the printer. In these cases I have corrected the mistake and placed [brackets] as shown here around my editorial insert. For example, regarding the Fox Sparrow (species #228), I changed "... Dec. 14, '96 H.S., by Swarth..." to [...December 14, '96, by H.S. Swarth...].

Footnote 3: Joseph Grinnell abbreviated months of the year to three letters, and I took the libery to spell out the months and eliminate abbreviations in the text. However, in my Afterword, I did use abbreviation for my chronology of Joseph Grinnell's personal collecting efforts in Los Angeles County.