*1 - Footnote by Joel Hedgpeth, 1978: "This is a difficult identification to make from the limited observation but the grey color does suggest a sea otter, as does the animal's prompt disappearance. The fisher is very dark brown, almost black, usually, and the marten is also quite distinctly brown. A land otter could appear greey and it is a pity Ricketts makes no mention of the tail. Possibly this could be significant, since the tail is very much noticeable in the land otter or fisher or even marten, while the sea otter has a very short and barely noticeable tail. (R. L. Haig-Brown.)
A careful research of the writings of Edward Ricketts reveals that he was aware of the importance of sea otters. Ed Ricketts also thought sea otters were "beautiful" and "wonderful." Ed lamented their loss in California. Even the friend and professional colleague of Ed Ricketts, Joel Hedgpeth was fond of the Sea Otter, Seal, and other marine mammals. More on all of this later. In the 1968 edition of Between Pacific Tides, Joel Hedgepth included a significant contribution about the sea otter. It must have been apparent to Joel Hedgpeth that Ed Ricketts would have approved. In the 1985 edition of Between Pacific Tides, David Phillips included new information on the sea otter in the appendix and the text, to supplement Joel Hedgepth's 1968 edition. It is clearly noticeable that Ed Ricketts' book, Between Pacific Tides, that was ready to go to the press by 1932, but published in 1939, is a living, breathing document, tome, magnum opus, that is still in print in 2002. The thoughts of Ed Ricketts and the sea otter and marine biology and the small sane animals of the ocean, is still going strong, for nearly 70 years, in the classic book, Between Pacific Tides.
POSTSCRIPT ON BIRDS
Ed Ricketts on Bird Ecology and Intertidal Region
§186. Emerita analoga (Pl. XXIX) is the mole crab or sand crab, the "sand bug" of the beach-frequenting small boy. The shell is almost egg-shaped - a contour that is efficient for dwellers in shifting sands where the surf is high, since the pressure is distributed too evenly to throw the animal out of balance........
...taken advantage of by hungry birds as well as curious collectors and bait-gatherers. The latter use the animals in their soft-shelled stag, that is just after they have moulted.
§154. A giant beach hopper, Orchestoidea corniculata, is successful in this barren environment, possibly because it lives high up, avoiding the "old devil sea" to which it belongs. ...............
Smallwood, who has worked with an East-coast beach flea that is similar in form and habitat to our Orchestoidea, believes that the animals' reactions to light do not account for their nocturnal habits, but that keeping out of sight in the daytime is simply a protection against birds.
§155. A second and much smaller beach hopper, Orchestoidea benedicti, is the only animal from the surf-swept beaches that is at home here as well. Unlike the larger hoppers, it can be found at will during the day, which seems to upset the bird theory unless its size or flavor are protective factors.