The Book, Between Pacific Tides, Evolution of a Preface and a List of Illustrations:
"Credit For The Excellent Line Drawings Goes
To Ritchie Lovejoy, Now of Juneau, Alaska"


Robert Jan van de Hoek, President
Biologist & Geographer
Ballona Institute
Los Angeles, California

The subtitle of this Ballona Institute essay, "Credit for the excellent line drawings goes to Ritchie Lovejoy, now of Juneau, Alaska," comes from the "Preface" of Between Pacific Tides. Ritchie Lovejoy was nicely acknowledged by his two good friends, Ed and Jack. The coauthors, Edward F. Ricketts and Jack Calvin, wrote their Preface on January 10, 1939. And only 3 months later in April, 1939, their book was printed by Stanford University Press and the rest is history.

Whenever I reread the Preface, I always notice that Ritchie Lovejoy lived in Juneau, Alaska. Now I know that he lived in Juneau two times. Ritchie Lovejoy and his wife, Tal, partners for life, first met in Monterey County, then they moved to Juneau, followed by a move to Sitka, and finally moved back to Juneau again. From there, they moved back to Pacific Grove in Monterey County. I think that Ed had missed his friends, Ritchie and Tal, while they were far away in Alaska?

For some time now, I have wanted to completely scribe the 1939 "Preface" for educational, recreational, and scientific purposes only. Finally, this month of April 2018, I was motivated by several factors to finally do so.

First and foremost, my research into the friendship of Ritchie Lovejoy with both Edward Ricketts and Jack Calvin, led me to realize that Ed and Ritchie coordinated closely together for more than 100 "illustrations" or "line drawings" in a fascinating relationship of friendship. There is even a famous photograph by Ralph Buchsbaum showing Ed and Ritchie investigating a species together in the basement of the Pacific Biological Lab on Cannery Row in Monterey that has been widely distributed and hints strongly of the naturalist and artist at work together!

When I realized further that April was the month that Stanford University Press chose for the release of Between Pacific Tides to the public and world at large, virtually 80 years ago, I felt compelled to share the "Preface" with everyone in the same month, albeit nearly 80 years later via the world wide web internet as a new publication of the Ballona Institute.

In addition, new Facebook friends have been interested in my postings about Edward Ricketts, and at least one nice person asked me if I had access to the 1939 Preface of BPT of Edward Ricketts. I said yes I do, because I own one of the only 1000 books printed in 1939.

Sadly, from 1952 to 1966, a period of 15 years, when Between Pacific Tides had at least 7 printings of the 3rd edition of Between Pacific Tides, I discovered that the 1939 Preface had disappeared, apparently " extinct" and with that loss, so was the recognition that Ritchie Lovejoy was the illustrator.

Finally, in 1968, Ritchie Lovejoy is acknowledged again by Joel Hedgpeth in the 4th edition, but still no "Preface" of 1939, so extinction appeared to be forever. However, joyfully, we see that in 1985, in the 5th edition, the 1939 "Preface" reappears again either at the insistence of David Phillips and perhaps also independently by the editors of the Stanford University Press? Unfortunately, the second-half of the 1939 "Preface" was not reprinted in the 1985 edition of Between Pacific Tides. In essence, the 1939 Preface is now with us again, via this internet web site of the Ballona Institute, and represents the first time in 70 years (1948-2018) to be available again. In 1948 in the 2nd edition of Between Pacific Tides, Stanford University Press had decided for the last time to include the 1939 "Preface" along with adding a "FOREWORD" by John Steinbeck. In that 2nd edition, we see Ritchie Lovejoy have his name alongside John Steinbeck on the title page in smaller print, below the the larger printed names of Edward Ricketts and Jack Calvin is extremely fascinating and curious to me.

Back in 1968, 50 years ago this year, the fourth edition of Between Pacific Tides, revised by Joel Hedgpeth finally acknowledged Ritchie Lovejoy and Jack Calvin, for their "line drawings" and "photographs" after a 17 year hiatus from 1952 to 1968. However, Ritchie Lovejoy had passed away prior to 1968, so he did not see himself acknowledged again for his contribution of "line drawings" and also the "List of Illustrations" continued to be eliminated. Interestingly, Joel Hedgpeth and Stanford Press moved the sentence about Ritchie Lovejoy and Jack Calvin to an "Acknowledgements" section on page x, causing a temporary extirpation. Here is the sentence by Joel:

"Except as indicated below, the illustrations in this book are those used in the original edition - the photographs of Jack Calvin, and the line drawings by the late Ritchie Lovejoy."

In the 1985 fifth edition of Between Pacific Tides, David Phillips copied exactly the acknowledgment of Joel Hedgpeth in 1968, 17 years earlier, verbatim, for some unknown reason. Interestingly, a punctuation mark was changed when a colon was added and a dash removed, perhaps by Stanford University Press? The sentence about Jack and Ritchie resurfaces into a Preface on page xxiv, and the "Acknowledgments" section goes extinct. In a fascinating and important change with the 5th edition, the prefaces of the earlier editions were included, except that not all of the 1939 "Preface" was included so that we do not see the specific written acknowledgement of Ritchie Lovejoy. See quote with punctuation change below:

"Except as indicated below, the illustrations in this book are those used in the original edition: the photographs of Jack Calvin, and the line drawings by the late Ritchie Lovejoy."

In a last minute discovery, or shall I say realization, I noticed that the 13 page section called "LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS" in the first edition of 1939 of Between Pacific Tides always shows the "line drawings" of Ritchie Lovejoy on the left side of the page and the photographs of Jack Calvin on the right side of the page. I believe this lay-out is innovative and I am led to a place of fascination as to whose idea this may have been, or was the idea a three-way collaboration of Ed Ricketts, Jack Calvin, and Ritchie Lovejoy?

What would a 6th edition of Between Pacific Tides do with a "Preface" and a "List of Illustrations" if ever there is a 6th edition, given that 33 years has now elapsed since the 5th edition appeared? The 5th edition has been reprinted many times from 1985 to 2012 without any changes, except for a new photograph on the jacket cover, so there really does not appear to be any likelihood that a 6th edition will reach the public any time soon, if ever!

R. J. vdH
JANUARY 10, 2018

The enormous wealth of life that occurs between the upper and the lower limits of the tide is a phenomenon of intense interest to the biologist and to the layman alike. Here strange plants and bizarre, brilliantly colored animals grow in such abundance that the most casual visitor to the seashore cannot fail to notice some of them. Almost invariably his curiosity is aroused: Is that gorgeous flower-like thing in the tide pool a plant or an animal? What is it called? What does it eat? How does it defend itself and reproduce its kind? Will it hurt me if I touch it?

And while the visitor is puzzling over his first sea anemone, a score of crabs may scurry away at his footfall or may rear up and offer battle in defense of life and liberty. When he turns to watch the crabs he may see a bed of urchins, their bristling spines half concealed by bits of seaweed and shell. He may stoop to pick up a snail, only to have the creature roll from the rock at the approach of his hand, tumble into a pool, and scramble away at a very unsnail-like pace. He hears scraping sounds and clicks and bubbling, perhaps sharp cracks like pistol shots. Jets of water shoot up. Everywhere there is color, life, movement.

In short, our visitor to a rocky shore at low tide has entered possibly the most prolific life zone in the world - a belt so thickly populated that often not only is every square inch of the area utilized by some plant or animal but the competition for attachment sites is so keen that animals settle upon each other - plants grow upon animals, and animals upon plants.

To supply such a person with as much as possible of the information that he wants is the chief aim of this handbook. The arrangement, therefore, is the one which we believe can be most readily grasped by the person who has had little or no biological training. The treatment is ecological and inclusive; that is, the animals are treated according to their most characteristic habitat, and in the order of their commonness, conspicuousness, and interest.

Work of this sort is necessarily so intricate and interwoven that to make adequate personal acknowledgements would be to mention most Pacific biologists and many specialists elsewhere. In the matter of general assistance, the staff at Hopkins Marine Station rates of course first, and acknowledgements for various kindnesses are particularly due to Dr. W. K. Fisher, its Director, G. E. MacGinitie, Director of the Kerckhoff Marine Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, has been unfailingly co-operative. Dr. S. F. Light and others in the Department of Zoölogy at the University of California have placed their very considerable facilities freely at our disposal, and Dr. Waldo L. Schmitt and others at the U. S. National Museum have been wholeheartedly behind the project. We feel grateful also to Dr. W. A. Clemens, Director, and to others, particularly Dr. C. Berkeley, of the Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C., to Dr. C. McL. Fraser at the University of British Columbia, Dr. T. Gislén at the University of Lund, to Dr. T. Wayland Vaughan, Director, Scripps Institution, to Mrs. Ida Shepard Oldroyd of the. Stanford Geological Museum, to Dr. W. C. Allee at the University of Chicago, Dr. V. E. Shelford of the University of Illinois, and to many others, for literature or other assistance. Acknowledgements to specialists have been included in the systematic index. Credit for the excellent line drawings goes to Ritchie Lovejoy, now of Juneau, Alaska. The photos are almost entirely the work of one us (Calvin). Co-operation throughout has been unstinted, and the most hearty acknowledgements are poor appreciation at best for the help which has made easier a very difficult task.

January 10, 1939